What are the protection points of surgeons and obstetricians and gynecologists?
On the basis of the principle of universal protection, surgeons should also pay attention to:
(1) During the operation, puncture, venous incision, intravenous injection and other invasive operations on patients, the operation procedures shall be strictly implemented and safety protection measures shall be implemented;
(2) Wear gloves and isolation gown when directly contacting the patient’s blood, infectious body fluids and mucosa. Discard the damaged gloves immediately, wash hands and wear new gloves;
(3) Wear blindfold and mask when blood may splash or aerosol may form;
(4) To prevent skin damage by instruments during operation;
(5) Minimize mouth-to-mouth breathing in case of emergency, and use mouthparts, rubber balls for artificial respiration or other auxiliary breathing appliances.
Is what the main protection point of stomatologists?
On the basis of implementing the principle of universal protection, we should also do:
(1) In the process of oral treatment for patients, minimize the spatter of blood and saliva and the generation of aerosol;
(2) When the operation is completed, the environmental surface contaminated by blood or saliva shall be disinfected with disinfectant;
(3) The equipment used by each patient should be disinfected before reuse. Disinfection methods include wiping, soaking, flushing, autoclaving and disinfection with disinfectant. Attention should be paid to maintaining the required concentration of disinfectant and sufficient disinfection time.
(4) To prevent the liquid from the patient’s oral cavity from being pumped into the dental head or water pipe, check control valves should be installed;
(5) For parts of the equipment that are difficult to disinfect, such as handle handles, etc., it can be covered with materials with smooth surface and easy wiping.
What is the key point of nursing staff protection?
In the clinical service work, nurses have more opportunities to contact AIDS patients, and there are also more daily invasive treatment and nursing operations (such as injection, blood drawing, etc.). Therefore, special attention should be paid to the prevention of HIV occupational exposure and iatrogenic infection.
(1) Nurses should wear isolation gown and disposable gloves when performing nursing. Because hands are the first barrier to HIV infection. Hands must be washed after nursing patients and before nursing another patient.
(2) Nurses should explain to patients and obtain cooperation before operation. For non-cooperative patients or operations with greater pollution risk, skilled two people should cooperate. The operations can be arranged as centrally as possible and carried out in strict accordance with standard operation procedures.
(3) When performing invasive treatment and nursing procedures, Such as surgery, puncture, injection, Attention should be paid to the use of sharp needles and do not hurt yourself by mistake. When using syringes, ensure that the needles are fastened on the needle tube and do not sleeve the syringe needles back after blood collection. Conditional units had better use vacuum blood collection vessels and corresponding butterfly needles to protect the blood drawn from direct contact with blood samples. The used sharp tools must be put into special containers.
(4) If the gloves are contaminated by blood or body fluids, the gloves must be replaced or washed in time to prevent the virus from being transmitted to other patients through the contaminated gloves;
(5) The used needles should be placed in hard thick plastic containers for unified disinfection and shape destruction.
Is the key point of laboratory personnel protection what?
(1) In the process of laboratory testing, laboratory safety operation procedures shall be strictly implemented, and universal protective measures shall be implemented;
(2) The laboratory shall be equipped with necessary disinfectants and disinfection equipment;
(3) All specimens should be regarded as potential sources of HIV infection;
(4) The patient’s specimen should be placed in a fixed container to avoid contamination outside the container. If it is spilled out, it should be treated with disinfectant as soon as possible.
(5) Specimens shall be transported in covered containers;
(6) A large amount of aerosol will be generated during centrifugation, stirring, ultrasound and suction and blowing of specimens. These operations should be carried out in an ultra-clean workbench.
(7) Avoid using sharp instruments as much as possible. If sharp instruments are really needed, it is recommended to replace two new gloves before using sharp instruments, and operate carefully to avoid stabbing injuries.
(8) If there are specimens and detection reagents splashing during operation, disinfection shall be carried out in time;
(9) After the work is finished, care should be taken to avoid being damaged by sharp tools when collecting, inspecting and disinfecting the worktop.
Except for special medical personnel, should how avoid exposure?
The main contact objects of medical personnel in their daily work are various patients, including patients with various infectious diseases. They often contact patients’ blood and body fluids during treatment and nursing. If they do not pay attention to protection, occupational exposure is inevitable.
For AIDS, medical personnel should adopt the principle of universal protection in medical operations to ensure safety at work and avoid occupational exposure. For example:
- Wear masks, gloves, isolation gown and disposable blindfold when necessary to prevent contaminated body fluids from splashing into eyes when they are likely to come into contact with patients’ blood and infectious body fluids. If there is skin damage on the hand, contact with blood, body fluids or mucous membrane should be avoided as much as possible. If contact cannot be avoided, the damaged skin should be protected with band-aid and so on before wearing double gloves for operation. Do not touch exposed skin, lips, eyes, ears and hair with gloved hands. Try to use disposable articles during treatment, including syringes, pipettes, test tubes, gloves, isolation gowns, etc. After use, the dirt must be disinfected in a timely and unified manner to prevent the occurrence of iatrogenic infection.
In addition, for ophthalmology, speculum operators, autopsy personnel, etc.
(1) Ophthalmic instruments that directly contact the patient’s eyes should be disinfected before reuse;
(2) When performing endoscopic examination, arteriography and dialysis operations, gloves and isolation gown shall be worn, and all kinds of used instruments shall be disinfected;
(3) When performing pathological dissection on the corpse or treating the patient’s body, wear gloves, disposable isolation gown, blindfold and mask when necessary, pay attention to prevent contamination by outflow of blood and body fluids, and treat the isolation gown and other dirt together after completion.
What is the key point of police protection?
Police officers sometimes suffer from skin and mucous membrane damage, acupuncture and knife cuts by the other party in the course of carrying out tasks such as arresting suspects and body searches. At the same time, they also come into contact with the blood of HIV infection in the other party, so there is also a risk of occupational exposure. To this end, police officers should have basic knowledge of AIDS, self-protection awareness and skills, and the specific methods include:
(1) Understand the transmission route and prevention measures of AIDS, hold a correct attitude, and neither be too fearful in daily work, thinking that AIDS will be transmitted at the first touch, nor be indifferent or inattentive;
(2) Attention should be paid to taking some methods that can protect oneself from being stabbed by the other party or avoid direct contact with the blood of the working object. Especially when the contact object is drug addicts, illegal blood sellers and other people who may be HIV infected, they should do a good job of self-protection, such as wearing gloves, carefully searching or checking the clothes of the other party.
(3) In case of occupational exposure such as accidental stab injury, Emergency local treatment should be carried out on site, For example, wash contaminated skin with soap and water, rinse mucous membrane with normal saline. If there is a wound, gently squeeze out blood, clean, disinfect and bandage the wound. Immediately report to the person in charge of the unit and the local disease control center, and ask experts to evaluate the exposure level to determine whether to carry out drug prevention, etc.
Responsible Editor: Chuyang