Every day, countless unmarried, married, childbearing and pregnant panda blood buddies ask: Can panda blood have a second child?
Today we will talk about this problem. However, first of all, I would like to talk about the Rh negative blood system. Everyone in the Rh negative blood system is certainly familiar with ABO blood type. We all know that blood transfusions can be dangerous if they are incompatible with blood types. In fact, According to the difference of antigen and antibody, human beings have many sets of blood group systems. In addition to ABO blood group system, there is also a rhesus system, that is, Rh blood group system. Different from ABO blood group system, Rh blood group is not divided into type A blood or type B blood, but is divided into: Rh positive blood (Rh +): D antigen is found in one’s own blood; Rh-negative blood (Rh-): There is no D antigen in your own blood. What are antigens and antibodies? Since the Rh blood group is differentiated according to the presence or absence of D antigen in the blood, So it is necessary to briefly introduce what antigens and antibodies are doing. 1. Immunity We all know that people have immunity. In general terms, Immunity can be understood as the body’s ability to resist external attacks. An important manifestation of immunity, Antigen and antibody antigen are all kinds of substances (such as common pollen, etc.) that enter the human body from the outside. 2. Antigen and antibody antigen are all kinds of substances (such as common pollen, As long as the human body recognizes that this kind of thing does not exist in its own body, A corresponding antibody is produced against this antigen, Attempts to eliminate this foreign substance. 3. The antigen-antibody reaction of Rh negative blood has some things. For a certain group of people, They can be produced by themselves, Then their bodies will not regard these things as enemies. It won’t produce antibodies. But the same thing, For others, they belong to foreign things. Is the antigen, It causes the body to produce antibodies, This is the same kind of immunity. Similarly, For people with Rh positive blood, They have D antigen in their own bodies, Therefore, people with Rh positive blood will not produce D antibody. However, For people with Rh negative blood, They were born with no D antigen, So, when they come into contact with D antigen, The body produces antibodies to D, To try to wipe out the D antigen. Rh-negative mothers are pregnant in our country. People who are born with Rh negative blood without D antigen, about 1 percent, Because it is relatively rare, So it is also called [panda blood]. If the pregnant woman is Rh negative blood, Originally, she had neither D antigen in her body, There is no D antibody. If she is pregnant with Rh-positive blood for the first time, Because a small part of the red blood cells of the fetus during pregnancy can enter the mother’s body, These red blood cells that carry D antigen, It will induce the mother’s body to produce targeted D antibodies. After the first pregnancy, the mother’s body still has D antibodies against D antigens produced during the first child. As the second pregnancy continues, The D antibody produced by the mother’s body can also enter the fetal blood, Will attack fetal red blood cells, Although the principle of maternal-fetal ABO blood group incompatibility is similar to that of Rh blood group, However, due to the type and intensity of antigens and antibodies, pregnant women with Rh negative blood have much greater immune problems due to blood type incompatibility, which can cause anemia, edema and even death of the fetus. Therefore, for pregnant women with Rh positive blood, it is not necessary to do titer examination simply for ABO blood type during pregnancy. For pregnant women with Rh negative blood, It is necessary to test the hemolysis of the fetus during pregnancy. Precautions for Rh negative blood mothers when pregnant with a second child 1. Prevention Fortunately, We found a way to prevent hemolysis of Rh blood group, It can greatly reduce the incidence of hemolysis of mother and fetus, Is to inject anti-D immunoglobulin. Since most Rh negative pregnant women do not have what problems during their first pregnancy, Then prevention before the next pregnancy can well reduce complications caused by blood type immunity. According to statistics, in countries that do not use anti-D immunoglobulin, nearly 10% of fetuses and newborns of Rh negative pregnant women will have complications. If immunoglobulin is used, This risk will be reduced to less than 0.2%. Use anti-D immunoglobulin at 28 weeks of pregnancy. Then use it again within 72 hours after delivery. In addition to normal pregnancy, For women with Rh negative blood, If after abortion or ectopic pregnancy, Immunoglobulin is also recommended within 72 hours. However, What needs to be spit out is that, Such a beneficial medical intervention, Although it has been implemented for decades, Anti-D immunoglobulin is not available in the mainland of our country for the time being. 2. Monitoring in addition, Pregnant women with Rh negative blood must follow the doctor’s instructions, Go to the hospital regularly for examination. During pregnancy examination, pregnant women with Rh negative blood will be examined for anti-D antibody titer determination. If the titer increases, It is suggested that the fetus needs to be examined. It should be emphasized that: The level of this titer determination, Is not proportional to the severity of the disease, That is to say, even if the titer is very high, And don’t worry too much, Whether further steps are needed, It still depends on the actual situation of the fetus. If the fetus is in good condition, Even if the titer is very high, There is no need for special treatment, as long as the monitoring can be strengthened. 3. Treatment Sometimes the fetus may have hemolysis in the uterus. Doctors will deal with it according to the specific situation. Serious cases may require abortion or induced labor. After the birth of the hemolytic fetus, special treatment may be required, such as blood transfusion, light treatment or drug treatment.