HIV-infected men who have sex with men

Men who have sex with men, why are they more vulnerable to HIV infection?

The way of sexual behavior is quite special.

-Anal sex

This is the most important sexual behavior mode for men who have sex with men. Among all kinds of HIV transmission modes, unprotected anal sex has the highest risk of HIV infection.

This is because during anal sex, the mucosa of the inserted and inserted parties are easily damaged, including small wounds invisible to the naked eye, thus causing the virus to invade from the damaged anus and rectum, enter the blood and cause infection.

-Oral sex

In addition to anal sex, men who have sex with men also often use oral sex. Although the risk of HIV infection through oral sex is relatively lower than anal sex, it is not easy to detect due to small wounds in oral mucosa. In this case, oral sex without cuff, even deep throat or intraoral ejaculation, greatly increases the risk of infection.

Place contingency of sexual behavior

In addition to traditional homes and hotels, male sex often occurs in open parks, green spaces, public toilets, gay bathrooms, gay bars, same-sex clubs, etc.

These places are often [chance encounters]. Hormones cause both parties to have accidental and uncertain sexual behaviors. They do not carry condoms, have no time to buy condoms, or just want to rely on this [chance encounter] to be cool and earth-shaking.

The sexual object is not fixed.

Many men who have sex with men have multiple sexual partners, and most of the partners are obtained through social software. When the health status of the other party is unknown, they do not use condoms or the condom ruptures without noticing, thus greatly increasing the risk of infection.

Social and psychological factors of sexual behavior are mixed.

Because there is no need to worry about pregnancy at all, men who have sex with men usually do not wear condoms in order to seek stimulation, resulting in the risk of infection.

In addition, the proportion of men who have sex with men who use new drugs or sex aids (RUSH, etc.) is relatively high. Smoking and using new drugs can inhibit or excite people’s central nervous system and make people hallucinate, thus causing the possibility of high-risk sexual behaviors such as anal sex without condom. Sex aids (such as RUSH, etc.) can make people excited, produce physiological feelings similar to orgasm, and increase the risk of high-risk sexual behaviors.

HIV infection among men who have sex with men has what characteristics,

1. Younger age

Men who have sex with men infected with HIV are young, most of them are in the age group of sexual activity, and with the development of society, there is a trend of younger age. Some cities even found 15-year-old men who have sex with men infected. Moreover, although the proportion of young students infected is not large, the growth rate is relatively fast.

2. The relative proportion of large and medium-sized cities is high.

By 2015, the HIV infection rate among men who have sex with men in the country will reach about 8%, but the proportion will reach more than 10% in some large and medium-sized cities. In addition, in Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin and the provincial capitals in northeast China, the proportion of cases transmitted by men who have sex with men will reach about 70% of the total number of new cases.

3. The virus strain is complex.

The predominant HIV epidemic in China is HIV-1, and the early subpopulation of HIV-1 is close to the B subtype in Europe/North America and the B subtype in Thailand (B ‘). However, the genetic and biological characteristics of HIV-1 virus become more complicated among men who have sex with men. Studies by Shang Hong et al. Found that the main virus in acute and chronic infections among men who have sex with men is Thai recombinant strain (CRF) 01_AE.

How to Protect Sexual Partners

1. Notification

AIDS is an infectious disease, Infected persons have the responsibility to inform those who have sex with them of their infection status and regulate their relevant behaviors to avoid spreading the disease to others. Deliberately concealing and spreading AIDS is an extremely immoral behavior. At the same time, it also violates the provisions of national laws on intentional transmission of infectious diseases and needs to bear corresponding legal responsibilities.

2. Take medicine

From 2016 onwards, The standard of antiviral treatment in China has been adjusted to “treatment upon discovery”. That is, no matter how much CD4 count is, As long as HIV infection is diagnosed, designated hospitals or CDC can provide free antiviral treatment. After systematic and standardized treatment, the viral load in the infected person will be lower than the detection limit, the virus will be effectively inhibited, and the risk of HIV transmission through sexual channels will be greatly reduced.

3. Sleeve

Correct and standardized use of condoms in the whole process can greatly reduce the risk of AIDS infection, so in the process of sexual life, whether vaginal sex or oral sex, the use of condoms should be standardized.

4. Treatment of venereal diseases

The risk of HIV infection in STD patients is much higher than that in non-STD patients. Regular screening of sexually transmitted diseases such as syphilis and standardized diagnosis and treatment in regular medical institutions will reduce the risk of HIV infection.

5. Periodic inspection

Even if it is strictly protected during sex, Standardize condom use, There is no guarantee that everything will be safe. For example, if a condom is ruptured without knowing it or if there is a wound or ulcer without knowing it, regular testing is helpful to know the infection status in time. If it continues to be negative, it is the best, and the previous protective measures should not be taken lightly. If it is positive, early detection and treatment should be carried out to minimize the damage to the body’s immune system.

6. Prevention after exposure

If you do not use condoms during sexual intercourse, or if condoms are damaged or slipped midway, please seek doctors from designated AIDS hospitals, disease control institutions or AIDS consultants from social organizations to conduct HIV infection risk assessment as soon as possible. If necessary, use post-exposure preventive drugs (PEP) (at your own expense) under the guidance of doctors to block HIV infection.

7. Pregnancy

Men who have sex with men, including bisexuality, Due to the profound influence of traditional ideas, In our country, many men who have sex with men finally chose to form a family with women and give birth to babies. Then, in addition to the daily protection mentioned above, they still need to do a good job of protection during pregnancy. Remember to take it for granted to give birth to a baby, and be sure to block mother and infant under the guidance of a doctor, so as to ensure the safety of the woman and give birth to a healthy baby at the same time.

Precautions in Taking Medicine

Follow the doctor’s advice and take medicine regularly.

Take the initiative to inform the doctor of his physical condition before taking the medicine, Don’t hide your past illness, So that the doctor can give you the most suitable drug combination. As you take it regularly every 24 hours or 12 hours, you must follow the doctor’s advice and make a suitable time point for yourself according to your personal life and working hours, and stick to it for a long time. During the process of taking the medicine, you must not reduce or stop taking the medicine by yourself. Communicate with the doctor in time if you feel unwell during the taking of the medicine.

Pay attention to index changes and conduct regular physical examination.

In addition to paying attention to CD4 index, viral load index and drug resistance, one should also pay attention to one’s liver and kidney function index. All infected persons should have tuberculosis screening at least once a year, and tenofovir users should also have bone mineral density checked regularly.

Reasonable arrangement of work and life, regular work and rest.

The immunity of infected persons has been damaged. Timely and early antiviral treatment is unlikely to completely restore the non-infected state. Therefore, it is necessary to avoid overwork, strengthen exercise and enhance their immunity. At the same time, it is also necessary to reasonably arrange their work and life, avoid staying up late, ensure adequate sleep and work and rest regularly.