Related Problems in Prevention and Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy

The number of diabetes patients in China has already ranked first in the world. The number of patients with diabetic retinopathy has also increased to 34 million, The number of patients with advanced stage is 6.7 million, About 10 percent of them, That is, about 600,000 people will become blind in 30 years. Diabetes can cause a variety of eye diseases. Diabetes causes many and common eye problems. Such as diabetic retinopathy, cataract, neovascular glaucoma, diabetic optic neuropathy, retinal macular edema, Among them, diabetic retinopathy is the most common. In the past, Among the many eye diseases that cause blindness, The first is cataract. But with the improvement of people’s living standards and diagnosis and treatment technology, Cataracts can be cured by surgery. Today, Diabetic retinopathy has become the main cause of blindness in diabetic patients. However, diabetic patients often do not pay attention to it. I don’t want to go to the hospital to have my eyes examined. Many diabetics, I had no idea that the development of my illness would affect my eyes. Because in the early stage or before the lesion affected the central part of the retina, Patients often have no abnormal feeling of what. But when the lesion develops to a certain extent, There will be horizontal eyesight paste, visual distortion, dark shadow in front of us, Even eye pain and other symptoms. When the doctor examines, he will find that, Iris neovascularization, Retinal edema or hemorrhage, Vitreous hemorrhage and opacity, Even retinal detachment and other phenomena. Retinal detachment may be caused by retinal neovascularization, hemorrhage or proliferative lesions in the late stage. Even blind. At present, the international [diabetic retinopathy staging] according to the standards formulated by the American Ophthalmology Association in 2001, It is divided into: no obvious retinopathy, mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy, moderate non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy, severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. For patients with different stages, The methods of preventing and treating diabetic retinopathy are also different. In the process of prevention and treatment, We should attach great importance to blood glucose control and microcirculation improvement, At the same time, Adopt individualized prevention and treatment programs. Medical treatment: Control blood sugar, Emphasis is placed on the prevention of diabetic eye diseases and blood sugar are very closely related, So from the day diabetes was diagnosed, It is necessary to strictly control blood sugar according to the requirements. Now many studies have proved that, Effectively control blood sugar to normal range at an early stage, It can greatly reduce the occurrence of diabetic eye diseases, Or delay the development. For patients who have not yet developed diabetic eye diseases, It should first be conducted by an endocrinologist, Diabetes is treated by oral hypoglycemic drugs, insulin, diet control, exercise and other methods. This is the fundamental method to prevent and treat diabetic eye diseases. In addition, diabetic patients often have complications such as hypertension and hyperlipidemia. They also play an important role in the occurrence and development of diabetic eye diseases. So controlling blood sugar and controlling blood pressure are the two cores. At present, No specific drug has been developed to treat diabetic eye diseases. That is, there is no way to fundamentally prevent the occurrence and development of diabetic eye diseases. There is no radical cure, Only symptomatic treatment can be carried out, Delay the development of the disease, It cannot be cured. Once the eye disease progresses to severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy and proliferative diabetic retinopathy, Even neovascular glaucoma, Whole body treatment alone is difficult to improve the fundus condition, Local treatment of the eye should be considered. Ophthalmic treatment: Save your eyesight, Control of disease condition 1. Laser therapy is an effective measure to treat diabetic eye diseases. Laser can directly seal ruptured microhemangioma and blood vessels. Large area photocoagulation can destroy the retina in the capillary supply area, From anoxic state to oxygen-free state, Atrophy of neovascularization. It is of positive significance to prevent glaucoma caused by hemorrhage and neovascularization. Laser will not increase vision. Many patients have decreased their vision after laser treatment, because the retina will produce some edema after laser treatment, which will affect their vision, especially macular edema, which will cause decreased vision in a short period of time. But in the long run, The visual prognosis is much better than that of patients without laser. 2. When non-absorbed vitreous hemorrhage occurs during vitrectomy (within 1 ~ 3 months), Even bleeding is organized, pulled, Thereby causing retinal detachment, A vitrectomy should be done, Save your eyesight as much as possible. You need a laser after surgery, Prevent recurrence of vitreous hemorrhage. 3. Intravitreous drug injection studies have found that Long-acting glucocorticoid triamcinolone acetonide (specific drug information can be found in Dr. Clove App) can inhibit inflammatory reaction, reduce vascular leakage, reduce macular edema and inhibit fibrovascular hyperplasia after intravitreal injection. In addition, In the vitreous body of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy, Vascular endothelial growth factor is significantly increased. It can selectively act on vascular endothelial cells, Stimulate the proliferation of endothelial cells, Causing neovascularization. Its blocker can obviously inhibit neovascularization. Vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor currently used clinically can be used for intravitreal injection. It has obvious curative effect on intraocular neovascularization and especially macular edema. Especially for preoperative use, It can obviously reduce intraoperative bleeding, Greatly improve the success rate of surgery. Mistakes of diabetic patients 1. Patients with diabetic retinopathy who do not check their eyes need long-term follow-up. This disease is not static, It is getting worse. Early patients often have no typical symptoms, Monocular diseases are often not easily detected, It is easy to delay treatment. So after diagnosis of diabetes, Regular follow-up should be conducted at the ophthalmologist’s side. The follow-up interval for patients who have not yet developed diabetic retinopathy can be set at one year. Patients with retinopathy should shorten the follow-up interval. 2. Diabetes patients who do not check fundus should not be unwilling to do fundus examination because of good eyesight. You should know that when eyesight drops obviously, Diabetic retinopathy is mostly advanced. Therefore, it is unreliable to find diabetic retinopathy by checking eyesight. Diabetics often mistakenly believe that as long as blood sugar is well controlled, sugar network will not occur. For early diabetic patients, strict control of blood sugar can indeed delay the occurrence of diabetic retinopathy. But once it is advanced, Controlling blood sugar alone does not play any role in the occurrence and progression of diabetic retinopathy. However, laser or even surgical treatment is needed. 3. Not actively treating many patients or their families believe that diabetic retinopathy has reached an advanced stage. He gave up treatment, This is wrong. At present, the continuous improvement and perfection of laser and surgical equipment, Even if he can’t see because of fundus bleeding, By laser therapy or vitrectomy, 90% of patients with advanced glucose reticulum can still recover certain vision. Therefore, in order to improve the quality of life in the future, Should strive for treatment opportunities. In short, as diabetic eye disease once appeared, fundus lesions are often irreversible. Therefore, the eye problems of diabetic patients must be paid enough attention to. In the control of blood sugar, regular examination at the same time, but also control blood pressure, blood lipid. Don’t wait until your eyesight has declined and you can’t see clearly before going to a doctor.