First, hepatitis B what is not terrible at all!
Hepatitis B is probably the most familiar and unfamiliar infectious disease in China. According to the results of the 2006 National Population Hepatitis B Seroepidemiological Survey, The carrying rate of hepatitis B virus in China is about 7.18%, That is to say, one in every 14 people will be a carrier of hepatitis B virus, However, most people know little about the transmission route of hepatitis B, For the onset process and disease outcome vague, blindly fear of hepatitis B and discrimination against hepatitis B virus carriers, even reached the degree of liver pale. This irrational attitude towards hepatitis B was once the mainstream view of the society, even in the national revision of < < civil service recruitment standards > >, hepatitis B carriers are refused to employ standards.
But in fact, no matter from the medical point of view or from the social point of view, this kind of discrimination is wrong. There is a big difference between hepatitis B virus infection, carriers and hepatitis B patients, and from the transmission route of hepatitis B, this kind of fear like a tiger, even refuse to contact with hepatitis B patients attitude is very stupid.
Second, the pentagonal relationship between antigens and antibodies
When it comes to hepatitis B, people’s first reaction is probably words such as [big three positive], [small three positive] and [two and a half], which are similar to joint codes. In fact, these words are only some conventional words (although these words are not necessarily very strict) for hepatitis B related examinations and examination results.
Hepatitis B detection is mainly aimed at the following five kinds, and [big and small three positive] and [two and a half] are the different detection results of these five antigens and antibodies. The [pentagonal relationship] between them is really confusing.
HBsAg, i.e. Hepatitis B virus surface antigen;
HBsAb, i.e. Hepatitis B virus surface antibody;
HBeAg, e antigen of hepatitis B virus;
HBeAb, i. E. Hepatitis B virus e antibody;
HBcAb is the core antibody of hepatitis B virus.
The first four items are paired in pairs, and when the last item is left alone, it is called [two and a half].
1. The eldest of the quintuplets: hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is the most direct indicator for testing hepatitis B infection. Unless it is tested within 72 hours after vaccine injection, the positive indicator means that hepatitis B virus exists in the body;
2. His twin brother hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) is an indicator to check the success of vaccine immunization.
The third and fourth are a pair of antigens and antibodies that check the progress of treatment.
3. The third hepatitis B E antigen (HBeAg) is used to test the progress of treatment. If this is positive, it means that the patient is highly infectious now.
4. The old fourth hepatitis B E antibody (HBeAb) appears when the body kills a large number of viruses, indicating that the replication level of hepatitis B virus is relatively low.
5. The last small five: hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb), like hepatitis B surface antigen, is the basis for the existence of hepatitis B virus and is common in the acute phase of hepatitis B.
The big and small three positive usually means that the eldest and the fifth are both positive. The difference lies only in the third and fourth who are positive. When the third is positive, it is [big three positive], When the old four is positive, it is [small three positive]. It is worth noting that the idea that [big three positive] is better than [small three positive] in folklore is one-sided. A single [two-and-a-half] examination result only represents the status of hepatitis B immune markers, and the severity of the disease should be judged according to a series of examination results such as clinical signs and liver function examination.
Three, infected = carrier? This is completely different!
For ethnic reasons, Before the invention of hepatitis B vaccine, hepatitis B virus wreaked havoc in Asia. According to Taiwan’s data, more than 90% of Taiwan residents over 40 years old had been infected with hepatitis B virus. However, before China began to include hepatitis B in immunization programs in 1992, the carrying rate of hepatitis B surface antigen in China was about 9.75%.
A concept should be made clear here. Infected persons are not equal to carriers, and carriers are not equal to patients.
In general, The process of human body being invaded by foreign pathogens is similar to that of country being invaded: The enemy troops will suffer fierce resistance when they enter the border and are found. If the number of invading enemies is small and their combat effectiveness is not strong, they will easily be eliminated by the domestic army. At the same time, the domestic army has increased its combat experience through training and will be easier to defeat in the face of the same enemy. However, if the number of invading troops is large and their combat effectiveness is very strong, it will not be so easy for the domestic troops to destroy them. Once the invading troops are allowed to gain a firm foothold and establish base areas, the battle will become a seesaw battle of fighting and stopping.
The infection process of hepatitis B virus is the same as the above process, Exposure to hepatitis B virus only at a low level, Or simply exposure to vaccines, Then the human body will not be infected with hepatitis B, Nor will it spread hepatitis B virus, On the contrary, you will get immunity. But if you contact hepatitis B virus many times, Then it is possible to become the carrier of hepatitis B virus, with infectivity. If the hepatitis B virus does not rebel in the body, and the immune system in the body is at peace, then the carrier has no difference from healthy people. But if the hepatitis B virus makes trouble in the body and affects the liver function, then the carrier will become hepatitis B patients.
Four, normal contact infection of hepatitis B? Ten thousand sneezes are not enough!
There are three major factors in the spread of infectious diseases: The source of infection, transmission route and susceptible population, no matter which one of the three links is controlled, can effectively control the epidemic of infectious diseases. The transmission route of hepatitis B mainly has three kinds: mother-to-child transmission, blood transmission and sexual transmission. That is to say, in the normal contact of daily life, healthy people will not be infected with hepatitis B virus.
More importantly, Hepatitis B is completely preventable. At present, the vaccination strategy implemented in our country requires that within 24 hours after birth, Injecting hepatitis B vaccine, This can make the human body produce the ability to resist hepatitis B attack as soon as possible. At the same time, The possibility of hepatitis B infection will decrease with age. In fact, The most common route of transmission of hepatitis B in China is mother-to-child transmission. Most chronic infected persons with hepatitis B are children when they come into contact with hepatitis B virus. Research shows that After people over the age of 5 are infected with hepatitis B, More than 90% of the cases can automatically remove the virus, while less than 10% of the people will develop chronic hepatitis or virus carriers, and this proportion is about 90% among children under 5 years old. Therefore, for an adult who has received full immunization with hepatitis B vaccine, there is no need to worry about contracting hepatitis B in life. For children, they should be vaccinated with hepatitis B vaccine as soon as possible to gain immunity.