Generally speaking, pregnant women can be vaccinated with dead vaccines (made of microorganisms killed by chemical or physical methods), while avoiding live vaccines (made of microorganisms that reduce pathogenicity).
1. Hepatitis B vaccine: This vaccine is a dead vaccine, Pregnant women can use it. Pregnant women who are not infected or have no resistance in their bodies, It is only necessary to inject 3 doses of vaccine according to the routine procedure (0, 1, 6 months) to prevent the occurrence of hepatitis B. Pregnant women suspected of infection (such as close contact with hepatitis B patients or needle stabbing by blood contaminated with hepatitis B virus, etc.), A hepatitis B immunoglobulin should be injected first, and then blood tests should be conducted. If pregnant women are positive for hepatitis B surface antigen or B surface antibody, no injection is required. If all are negative, another 3 injections of hepatitis B vaccine are required, the first injection is given 7-10 days after injection of hepatitis B globulin, and another injection is given every 1 month and 6 months.
2. Rabies vaccine: This vaccine is also a dead vaccine and pregnant women can be vaccinated. If pregnant women are bitten by dogs or other animals, especially mad dogs and other animals, they should be injected with rabies vaccine in time. For serious injuries, rabies immunoglobulin or anti-rabies serum (40 units/kg) should be injected immediately, and then 5 injections of rabies vaccine should be injected according to the procedures (day, day 3, day 7, day 14 and day 28).
3. Japanese encephalitis vaccine: This vaccine is a dead vaccine and pregnant women can be vaccinated. Pregnant women who go to the epidemic area of Japanese encephalitis virus in August to October, when Japanese encephalitis is high, had better inject Japanese encephalitis vaccine 1 to 2 months in advance to produce sufficient immunity.
4. Hepatitis a vaccine: Dead vaccines are mostly used abroad, while live vaccines are currently used in China. Pregnant women had better not use them. Pregnant women who are or may be infected by hepatitis a virus should be injected with gamma globulin immediately.
5. Measles vaccine: This vaccine is live and should not be used by pregnant women. If pregnant women may be infected, they can be injected with gamma globulin immediately.
6. Rubella vaccine: This vaccine is a live vaccine and is forbidden for pregnant women. Because pregnant women infected with rubella virus are extremely easy to cause fetal malformation, and the preventive effect of immunoglobulin is difficult to determine, so pregnant women who have not suffered from rubella, if they come into contact with rubella patients in the early pregnancy, it is best for doctors to decide whether to continue or terminate the pregnancy.
7. Influenza vaccine: During the influenza epidemic period, pregnant women can be vaccinated with this vaccine. However, it is advisable to vaccinate in the middle and late stages of pregnancy, and vaccination should be avoided in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. The main vaccination target is pregnant women suffering from chronic diseases to prevent premature delivery caused by influenza. Another advantage of influenza vaccination for pregnant women is that it can make the child immune to influenza within six months after birth.
In addition, for pregnant women who have never been injected with tetanus toxoid, such as in areas with high incidence of tetanus or in jobs vulnerable to trauma, it is best to inject tetanus toxoid three times, once a month. For pregnant women without immunity, if they may be infected with tetanus due to trauma, they should be injected with tetanus antitoxin as early as possible.
In short, when pregnant women need vaccination, they should listen to the opinions of local full-time epidemic prevention doctors and do not abuse them without authorization, so as to ensure safety and benefit eugenics.