Why did you choose these physical examination items?

This paper briefly introduces the examination purpose and matters needing attention of some routine physical examination items.

If there is any abnormality in the examination results, further detailed examination should be carried out in the corresponding departments under the guidance of doctors.

General inspection

Including height, weight, blood pressure, waist circumference, etc.

It is used to understand the basic situation, preliminarily judge blood pressure, obesity, etc., and provide basis for diagnosis of relevant departments.

For those with family history of hypertension, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, or risk factors of blood pressure rise, it is recommended to measure blood pressure at home, which is more accurate than blood pressure in a single physical examination.

Review Department: Cardiology Department, Nutrition Department or Endocrinology Department.

General examination of internal and surgical department

Through physical examination methods, the basic conditions of skin, lymph nodes, thyroid gland, breast, anorectum, external genitals, spine, limbs and joints are examined for deformity, and the basic conditions of important organs such as heart, lung, liver, spleen and nervous system are examined.

It is used to find important signs of common internal and surgical diseases, or to preliminarily exclude common surgical diseases.

According to the inspection results, the corresponding department can be selected for review.

Blood routine

It is used to find blood problems, understand anemia, help to judge the type of infection, and help to diagnose hemorrhagic diseases.

Review departments: hematology department, infectious disease department or select corresponding departments according to the examination results.

Liver function

Evaluating various functional states and injury degrees of liver is of great significance to the diagnosis, curative effect and observation of liver diseases.

Review Department: Hepatobiliary Surgery or Digestive Internal Medicine.

Kidney function

Monitoring renal function, judging the severity of renal diseases and predicting prognosis, determining curative effect and adjusting the dosage of certain drugs are important basis for predicting renal diseases, hyperuricemia and gout.

Review departments: Nephrology Department and Endocrinology Department.

Blood lipid

As a diagnostic index for lipid metabolic disorders and related metabolic diseases, it is also helpful to judge the status and prognosis of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, liver and kidney diseases, intestinal diseases, etc.

Review Department: Endocrinology Department.

Fasting blood glucose

Refers to the blood sugar level after fasting for 8 ~ 12 hours and before breakfast in the morning.

As an indicator of glucose metabolism disorder, it can diagnose diabetes and evaluate blood sugar control.

When conditions permit or there are high-risk factors for diabetes, glycosylated hemoglobin and glucose tolerance can be detected to reflect the blood sugar situation in the recent 8-12 weeks, which is more meaningful than a single blood sugar.

Review Department: Endocrinology Department.

Urine routine

It is of great significance to the detection of urinary system diseases, and also has important reference value to the diagnosis, prognosis judgment and medication monitoring of other system diseases.

Reexamination departments: urology department, nephrology department or select corresponding departments according to examination results.

Fecal examination

It is of great significance to the detection of digestive system diseases. It can also indirectly judge the functional status of gastrointestinal, pancreatic and hepatobiliary systems. The diagnosis of intestinal parasites and occult blood detection are helpful to judge digestive tract hemorrhage diseases.

Over 50 years old, stool immunochemical tests can be increased to screen colon cancer.

Review Department: Department of Digestive Internal Medicine.


Ultrasonic imaging is used to judge the status of liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen and kidney and various pathological changes, such as tumors, stones, hydronephrosis, fatty liver, etc., as well as to evaluate blood supply and differentiate benign and malignant pathological changes, etc.

According to the inspection results, the corresponding department can be selected for review.

X-ray chest film

Check heart and lung, mediastinum, diaphragm, pleura to judge whether there is inflammation, tumor, etc.

Review Department: Cardiology Department or Thoracic Surgery Department.

Cardiac examination

It should be noted that conventional electrocardiogram can indicate arrhythmia, myocardial infarction, etc., but for early cardiovascular diseases such as coronary heart disease and early myocardial infarction that are temporarily asymptomatic, it is actually difficult to be found through conventional electrocardiogram.

With arrhythmia, chest tightness, shortness of breath and other symptoms, cardiac specialist examination should be increased.

Myocardial zymogram examination and serum troponin determination can be increased in patients with myocardial infarction.

When necessary, cardiac color Doppler ultrasound examination can be added, which can provide basis for diagnosis, curative effect evaluation and prognosis evaluation of cardiac valve diseases.

Review Department: Cardiology Department or Thoracic Surgery Department.

Thyroid examination

Detect the levels of various hormones secreted by thyroid gland, judge thyroid function, and provide diagnostic basis for hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, etc.

Thyroid B-ultrasound can discover thyroid cysts and masses in time and judge the nature.

It is usually recommended that pregnant women and expectant mothers have thyroid hormone tests.

Review Department: General Surgery Department.


Hearing, external auditory canal and tympanic membrane; Olfactory function, routine examination of nasal sinuses, nasal cavity and pharynx, larynx and tonsil.

It is used to find important signs of common otolaryngology diseases and initially eliminate common diseases in the above parts.

Reexamination Department: Otolaryngology Department.

Ocular examination

Check eyesight and color discrimination.

Whether the external eye is normal or not, some common external eye diseases are found or preliminarily excluded.

Discovery of ocular tissues, such as conjunctiva, cornea, sclera, iris, anterior chamber, lens, vitreous body, etc.

Examination of fundus, such as optic disc, blood vessels, macula, etc., is used to diagnose retina, choroid, optic nerve and other pathological changes, as well as to find some systemic diseases, such as hypertension, diabetes, central nervous system diseases and other ocular abnormalities.

People over 40 years old need to pay special attention to fundus changes. This examination is even more necessary for patients with recent blurred vision and headache.

Review Department: Ophthalmology.

Oral examination

Fully understand the oral health status, timely find teeth and periodontal, oral mucosa and other diseases, as well as dentures and other equipment wearing.

Review Department: Department of Stomatology.

Cerebrovascular examination

By detecting blood biochemical indexes such as homocysteine (Hcy) level and combining with cervical vascular ultrasound examination, the blood flow of carotid artery and other blood vessels and their branches can be judged, and the vascular structure, sclerosis state, scope, nature and stenosis degree can be understood, so as to provide pre-judgment and prevention basis for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.

People who often feel dizzy, headache, dim eyesight or feel weak on one side of their limbs can have brain CT or magnetic resonance examination when conditions permit to help them check diseases at an early stage.

Review Department: Neurology Department or Neurosurgery Department.

Bone mineral density detection

Early detection of osteopenia and estimation of the degree of osteoporosis, timely and effective prevention and treatment.

Menopausal women, people with persistent pain in waist and back, pelvis, knee joint and other parts are recommended to do this examination.

Review Department: Orthopaedics or Endocrinology Department.

Prostate examination

Including digital prostate examination, prostate ultrasound and PSA examination.

This is of great clinical significance for the diagnosis, curative effect observation and prognosis evaluation of prostate tumor, hypertrophy and inflammation.

Reexamination Department: Urology Department.

Breast examination

For specific examination methods, click on the article on the right to view the specific methods of breast examination.

It is used to discover hyperplasia of mammary glands, tumor, nodule, canceration, etc. It is of great significance for the early detection of breast cancer.

Review Department: Breast Surgery.

Gynecological examination

The most suitable time for gynecological examination is 3 ~ 7 days after the end of menstruation in the current month.

Including gynecological routine physical examination, gynecological B-ultrasound, cervical smear, TCT and HPV examination, etc. For details of cervical smear and HPV examination, please click on the article HPV examination.

It is used to understand the status of external genitals, observe the status of uterus and accessories, find common gynecological diseases, and deal with and intervene in time.

Usually, there are three ways of gynecological B-ultrasound: transabdominal, transvaginal and transrectal, which require different clothes to choose. For example, women who have experienced asexual experiences generally do not choose transvaginal ultrasound.

Over 65 years old, the previous regular cervical scraper did not indicate abnormality, but did not do cervical scraper.

Review Department: Gynecology Department.


Including weight analysis, BMI calculation, obesity diagnosis, fat distribution, etc.

Review Department: Nutrition Department or Endocrinology Department.


Examination for those with high-risk factors or symptoms is not a routine item.

Gastroscopy, colonoscopy.

Review Department: Digestive Internal Medicine or General Surgery Department.

Helicobacter pylori detection

Serum antibody or blowing test can be selected.

Patients with gastritis and gastric ulcer can increase this examination upon the advice of doctors.

Review Department: Department of Digestive Internal Medicine.

Cancer screening

Detection of various tumor markers.

In principle, breast cancer, cervical cancer, colon cancer, the general population needs screening; For other cancers, only high-risk groups need selective examination.

For specific examination principles, you can click on the link to view cancer screening.

Review Department: Oncology Department.

Hepatitis B virus detection

Hepatitis B patients or people who suspect hepatitis B can be tested for hepatitis virus.

Review Department: Infectious Disease Department or Digestive Internal Medicine Department.

Sex hormone assay

Used to understand hormone levels in the body.

Review Department: Endocrinology Department.

I hope the above contents can provide some references when you choose the physical examination items. After the physical examination, according to the needs, doctors can recommend the corresponding departments according to the specific physical examination results and guide further examination.

Copyright of Clove Garden. No reprinting is allowed without permission.