Although the name sounds a bit bluff-Norovirus, it is actually a common virus, not a new type of virus. Within 48 hours after infection, patients will suffer from acute gastroenteritis symptoms such as vomiting and diarrhea, especially vomiting symptoms. Winter is the season of high incidence of Norovirus outbreaks, also known as [winter vomiting disease].
Because Norovirus is very easy to contaminate food, it is the main pathogen causing diarrhea outbreaks. In the United States, it causes nearly 50% of food-borne diseases.
The virus is highly infectious and needs to be cleaned with disinfectant.
This is a highly infectious virus, which only needs 10-100 virus particles to cause disease. You know, one vomiting can expel hundreds of millions of virus particles. The virus disperses in the air through aerosols, causing aggregated outbreaks.
I remember in a kindergarten in Shenzhen, just because of the vomiting of a sick child, the outbreak of more than a dozen children in the whole class was caused. The teachers were very wronged and had cleaned up the vomit as quickly as possible.
In fact, because the virus is highly infectious, the common cleaning method is wrong. How to clean it up?
If someone at home is infected with Norovirus, vomiting or diarrhea, remember to disinfect the contaminated furniture, floor and clothes in time according to the correct method-sprinkle chlorine-containing disinfectant such as  first, cover with paper towel, rag and other covers for 30 minutes, and then clean up. At this time, medical alcohol is ineffective.
Photo from: CDC, USA
Antibiotics are ineffective after infection and should be treated with symptoms.
After contracting norovirus, there is no specific drug. After infection, we will have diarrhea and vomiting. Sometimes we will take antibiotics by ourselves. This is the wrong method. Antibiotics are ineffective against norovirus, and taking them indiscriminately will only lead to abuse of antibiotics.
Fortunately, it is a self-healing disease, just like a cold. Only symptomatic treatment is needed. If the fever is reduced, the fever will be stopped and diarrhea will be stopped.
If the symptoms are not serious, You can stay at home and correct dehydration and electrolyte disorders through oral rehydration, as well as symptomatic treatment such as rest and diet conditioning. Sports drinks that do not contain caffeine and alcohol can play a certain role in supplementing water, but cannot supplement important nutrients and minerals. Buying oral rehydration at pharmacies is the most effective treatment.
When symptoms are serious, such as severe vomiting and diarrhea to dehydration, you should go to the hospital. However, the elderly, infants and people with basic diseases have a higher risk of serious complications and need special attention.
It is worth noting that within 3 days after the symptoms disappear, the virus carried on the body still has strong transmission power. Therefore, 3 days after recovery, it is best not to go to the place where the crowd gathers, so as not to cause the virus to spread again.
Viruses mutate easily and there is no vaccine.
Like influenza, Norovirus mutates so easily that even if you are already infected with the virus, there is still no immunity. The next time the virus strikes in a new form, your immune system is still a blank sheet of paper in front of it.
The bad news is that there is no vaccine on the market yet. At present, several small companies in the United States are developing vaccines, and it will take some time to go on the market.
Prevention is successful. Should you do some what?
The authoritative advice from the Chinese CDC is that personal hygiene, food hygiene and drinking water hygiene are the keys to prevention.
We should develop healthy living habits such as washing hands frequently, not drinking raw water, and separating raw and cooked food to avoid cross contamination.
The risk factors of Norovirus infection are mainly contaminated shellfish, fruits and vegetables, bottled water and well water, etc. Therefore, before eating fruits and vegetables, they must be washed and peeled. Seawater shellfish must be cooked thoroughly before eating. Norovirus has strong resistance and can survive at 60 ℃ or after rapid steaming.
Select hygienic and qualified bottled water. Tap water and bottled water are best boiled for drinking to avoid mixed drinking of boiled water and raw water so as to prevent the disease caused by pollution.
Timely use chlorine-containing bleach to clean the surface contaminated by vomitus or feces, immediately take off and clean the contaminated clothes or bed sheets, etc., wear rubber or disposable gloves when cleaning, and wash hands carefully after cleaning.
Editor: Xu Zhuojun
Author: Pang Fen