Manifestations of burns
The first degree burn belongs to superficial burn and is mainly manifested as follows:
- The skin surface is erythema with local swelling and burning pain.
When the skin epidermis is burned in full thickness and the dermis is injured, it is called second degree burn. The main manifestations are as follows:
- Blisters of different sizes have obvious redness and swelling in local areas, and red and white spots on the wound surface have obvious pain, burning sensation and swelling.
Third degree burns are deep burns, with full-thickness skin burns even involving subcutaneous areas, leaving scars after healing. Fat, muscle and even bone may be affected. The wound surface is waxy white or scorched yellow, even blackened and carbonized.
Treatment of burns
Different treatment methods are adopted according to the severity.
Step 1: Superficial burns
Including first-degree burns and second-degree burns with relatively small burn range, the treatment methods are as follows:
(1) Cooling therapy: The wounds were washed, cold compressed and soaked with cold water. Or use a towel wrapped with ice cubes for cold compress (ice cubes cannot be directly applied to the wound surface), and tap water is the most commonly used and convenient. The duration of cold therapy is preferably 10-15 minutes or until the wound surface does not feel pain or the pain is significantly relieved. Cold therapy can have the effects of cooling down, relieving pain and relieving local swelling.
(2) Cover the wound surface with aseptic gauze: Cotton or other dressings that can stick to the open wound on the affected part should not be used, and the cover should not be too tight. Gauze covering can keep the wound clean, reduce pain and protect skin blisters.
(3) Appropriate use of over-the-counter painkillers: such as aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen or acetaminophen. It is recommended to carefully read the precautions and adverse reactions in the instructions before use, or consult a professional doctor.
2. Deep burns
To immediately call 120 or timely seek medical treatment nearby, and carry out necessary on-site first aid;
(1) Do not tear off burning clothes and trousers forcefully: Quickly extinguish the flame and leave the fire scene. Clothes and trousers soaked in hydrothermal solution can be cut off after being washed with cold water, but do not tear off forcefully to avoid secondary damage.
(2) Do not immerse large-area deep burns in cold water, so as not to cause sharp drop in body temperature and blood pressure and shock.
(3) Pay attention to observe whether the injured person has shock manifestations (breathing, cough or exercise). If the injured person stops breathing or heartbeat, cardiopulmonary resuscitation should be implemented urgently.
(4) Raise the burned limbs as high as possible above the heart level.
(5) Covering burn wounds, can use breathable and moist aseptic bandages, clean wet cloth or wet towel. Avoid smearing colored drugs on the wound surface, such as mercurochrome, gentian violet, etc., so as not to affect the doctor’s judgment on the depth of burn on the wound surface. Careful use of toothpaste, ointment, etc., otherwise it will lead to debridement difficulties or heat cannot be released in time.
Injection of tetanus vaccine: Whether burn patients are complicated with tetanus depends not on the size of the burn area, but on the depth of the burn and the condition of the injury. Any person with deep burn or serious pollution during injury must take preventive measures against tetanus.
1. If I degree burns and II degree burns are mild, they should be treated according to the above methods. If they are severe, or if they hurt hands, feet, face, groin, buttocks or major joints, they should be treated as deep burns and need urgent medical treatment.
2. For Ⅲ degree burns, medical treatment must be carried out, and the above on-site first aid methods must be adopted before medical treatment.
3. If you cannot evaluate the degree of burns and do not know the type of burns, please be sure to see a doctor.