Recently, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention announced that Listeria monocytogenes was detected in the ice cream products of Blue Bell Company in the United States, which has caused 8 people to seek medical treatment due to infection and 3 people to die. The ice cream also entered the Chinese market last year and was sold in Shanghai, Sichuan, Heilongjiang and other places.
Listeria, perhaps many people are still unfamiliar with this name. However, according to a report in the 2010 China Journal of Food Hygiene, the detection rate of Listeria in food safety monitoring in 13 provinces in China is 3.7%, with raw meat products having the highest detection rate.
Food poisoning caused by microbial infection is not to be overlooked worldwide.
Listeria monocytogenes can withstand lower temperatures. It is reported that Listeria monocytogenes can still grow in an environment of about 0 ℃. Simple refrigeration or short-term freezing cannot kill Listeria monocytogenes.
It may exist in raw fruits and vegetables, raw milk, dairy products, various cooked foods and marinated meat.
People who are vulnerable to infection: the elderly, pregnant women and people with low immunity. Fever, muscle pain, nausea and diarrhea may occur after infection, which may occur within 2 days to 2 months after infection. Severe patients may even show meningitis, septicemia and life-threatening diseases.
May exist in poultry, eggs, fresh vegetables and fruits.
Fresh eggs with clean surfaces may also be contaminated. In addition, fresh vegetables such as tomatoes and lettuce, which are often eaten raw, may also be the cause of salmonella poisoning.
People vulnerable to infection: infants and the elderly with weak resistance. The main symptoms of infection include abdominal colic, fever and diarrhea. Symptoms usually last for 4-7 days.
Escherichia coli mainly exists in the intestinal tract of mammals, such as pork and beef, which are likely to be contaminated by Escherichia coli during slaughter.
Raw milk may also be contaminated by Escherichia coli during milking. In addition, fresh vegetables and freshly squeezed fruit juice are also high-risk foods for infection.
Vulnerable people: children, the elderly, pregnant women and people with poor resistance. Infection will cause severe abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting. The most severe infection is a few days after infection and lasts for about a week.
Symptoms caused by Norovirus are often called [gastrointestinal cold]. Infection with Norovirus is usually caused by inattention to hand hygiene.
Vulnerable population: infants under 5 years old and the elderly over 50 years old. The main symptom is vomiting and diarrhea, which generally lasts for 24-48 hours.
Set the temperature of the refrigerating chamber of the refrigerator below 4 ℃, while the temperature of the freezing chamber needs to be below-18 ℃;
Fresh fruits and vegetables should be stored in the refrigerator and not placed at normal temperature as far as possible.
Thoroughly clean fruits and vegetables: when eating fruits, be sure to wash and peel them; Every leaf of green leafy vegetables should be washed clean. For vegetables such as cabbage and cabbage, it is best to remove the outermost layers of leaves. Especially for vegetables to be eaten raw, more attention should be paid to cleaning.
All poultry meat must be thoroughly cooked before eating. Meat must be cooked until it is fully cooked. The cooked meat cannot be put back on the plate filled with raw meat.
Do not eat raw or half-cooked eggs;
Drink only pasteurized or high-temperature sterilized milk;
The food stored in the refrigerator should be fully heated at high temperature before eating, and the temperature must reach 70 ℃ and last for more than two minutes.
Clean up the refrigerator in time, especially the blood and stains produced by raw meat;
After processing raw meat, don’t forget to clean the chopping board and knives, and of course your hands.
Select hygienic and qualified bottled water, tap water and bottled water are best boiled for drinking;
If you want to deal with vomit or feces, please clean it with chlorine-containing disinfectant in time. Wear rubber or disposable gloves when cleaning, and wash your hands carefully after cleaning.
Most food poisoning symptoms are mild and can heal themselves. However, if there is a high fever, continuous vomiting, bloody stool or severe diarrhea, you must seek medical treatment in time.
Responsible Editors: Fu Ting and Zhang Jingyuan
This article is the exclusive manuscript of Dr. Clove and refuses to reprint it in any form.