Herpetic angina is a disease caused by virus infection, which mainly occurs in children aged 1-7 years old, especially under 5 years old. The peak period of onset is from April to July or summer and autumn every year. It is highly infectious and must be isolated and disinfected.
The incubation period of the disease is about 2-4 days, and 50% ~ 80% of adults are asymptomatic infections. They can also play a role in virus infection.
Fever in children usually lasts for 2-4 days. In most cases, herpetic angina has a good prognosis and is a self-limited process. The natural course of disease is usually 4-6 days and a few to 2 weeks. It is unnecessary to turn pale at the mention of blisters.
Herpetic angina is not necessarily hand-foot-mouth disease, but it can also be considered as a special type of [hand-foot-mouth disease]. We should be more vigilant. However, as long as early detection, early diagnosis, early identification of critical signals, timely treatment and reasonable treatment are carried out, we can generally recover smoothly.
In terms of nursing, parents should pay attention to the following points.
Pay Attention to Isolation
Children should stay at home as far as possible to reduce unnecessary going out. It is best to isolate them for another week after their body temperature is normal and herpes subsides.
Generally speaking, the total isolation time is 2 weeks, which is the same as the legal isolation time for hand-foot-mouth disease, especially in the first week of onset, the infectivity is strongest.
When staying indoors, pay attention to the following points:
More ventilation: such as regular opening of doors and windows, etc., to maintain indoor air circulation, keep indoor air fresh, keep indoor temperature and humidity appropriate;
Non-smoking: Don’t have too many people in the same room, try to avoid smoking and avoid secondary infection of children;
Less visits: Apart from not visiting sick children, parents should also visit as little as possible, because parents may also become the transmission medium of herpetic angina.
Observe the illness
Specifically, we should observe from these aspects:
Are there any new symptoms?
Are the original symptoms and signs aggravated or deteriorated?
- Is there any critical signal? Observe the mental state of the child, whether there is limb shaking, easy shock, skin temperature, respiration, heart rate, blood pressure, etc. Once there is a critical signal, timely treatment or follow-up is required.
Among them, how to observe breathing?
Mainly observe whether the baby has dyspnea and/or accelerated breathing frequency. If the following degree is reached, it is breathing too fast:
- Children over 5 years old > 30 times/minute; 1 ~ 5 years old > 40 times per minute; 2 months to 12 months > 50 times per minute; Newborns ~ 2 months old > 60 times per minute.
If there are persistent or frequent dyspnea and/or accelerated respiratory frequency, the possibility of pneumonia is relatively high and timely medical treatment is required.
How to monitor the body temperature?
Generally, the body temperature can be measured every 4 hours.
If the body temperature exceeds 38.5 ℃ (axillary temperature), the body temperature shall be measured every 1-2 hours, and attention shall be paid to the presence of chills, convulsions, dysphoria, nonsense, hallucinations or severe convulsions, etc. The body temperature shall be re-measured 1 hour after degenerative heat treatment.
Pay attention to nursing
STEP 1 Diet Attention
It should be light, delicious and easy to digest. Cooking soft and rotten or liquid and semi-liquid foods of the corresponding age, such as noodle soup, porridge, rice paste, breast milk, etc., should be given priority to to avoid irritating foods such as salty, sour and spicy foods.
2. Treatment of the affected part
Apply cod liver oil to ulcer to help relieve pain.
Step 3: Oral Cleaning
Pay attention to keeping oral cavity clean and sanitary, and rinse your mouth with warm water after each meal. If the child cannot rinse his mouth, he can drink it directly.
4. Personal hygiene
Pay attention to washing hands frequently (especially before meals and after defecation). It is recommended to use soap or hand sanitizer and use flowing water to wash hands instead of dirty towels to avoid repeated infection or cross infection.
Step 5 Take a rest
During the week of onset, rest is very important, and try to limit the amount of activity to prevent excessive fatigue.
Pay attention to disinfection
Enterovirus can survive for one year at 4 ℃, for a long time at-70 ℃ ~-20 ℃, and for a long time in external environment, but it is not resistant to high temperature.
Toys played by children, used milk utensils, bowls, chopsticks or other clothing and other daily necessities should be thoroughly disinfected.
How to disinfect is exquisite, and effective disinfection methods include (but are not limited to):
Step 1: Boiling
Applicable articles: milk bottles, bowls and chopsticks and other high temperature resistant soaking articles
Articles that can be soaked and resistant to high temperature, such as tableware such as milk bottles, bowls and chopsticks, can be boiled with water for disinfection, and viruses can die immediately when boiling. Therefore, after boiling, they can be cooled naturally.
2. Hot water soaking method
Applicable articles: articles that are resistant to high temperature, can be soaked but are not suitable for boiling.
Those that cannot be boiled, but can resist high temperature and can be soaked (such as clothes, etc.) can be soaked in hot water. Note that the water temperature should be maintained above 56 ℃ for at least 30 minutes.
3. Disinfectant scrubbing/soaking method
Applicable articles: floors, toys, etc.
For floors, toys, furniture or other articles that can be scrubbed or soaked, disinfection with alcohol is ineffective, and soaking with chlorine-containing disinfectant or potassium permanganate is required. Please refer to the product instructions for specific use, such as 84 disinfectant solution, which should be paid attention to its certain corrosiveness. Toilet toilets and other utensils can be disinfected with bleaching powder, etc.
After disinfection, it can be scrubbed or soaked in clear water and dried in the air. It can be used after at least 30 minutes.
4. Ultraviolet lamp irradiation
Applicable articles: air, surface can be irradiated to articles
If conditions permit, the ultraviolet lamp can be used to directly irradiate for 0.5 ~ 1.0 hours, but only on the surface of the object that the light can irradiate.
Applicable articles: The surface can be irradiated to articles
When there is sunshine, articles to be disinfected can be placed in the sun for 0.5-1.0 hours, but only on the surface of objects that can be irradiated by sunlight.
STEP 6 Hand Cleaning
Parents or caregivers should wear gloves before and after contacting the child, change diapers/diapers and handle stool for the child, or pay attention to washing hands with soap and clear water afterwards.
At present, herpetic angina has no specific medicine from what that can be used for treatment. It has self-healing and does not need special treatment from what. Generally, symptomatic treatment is sufficient. The main purpose of treatment is to relieve the discomfort of children.
It should be pointed out that when infants have fever, they should not cover their heat (sweat)-they should not wrap too much or too tightly, so as not to affect heat dissipation and even cause heat covering syndrome.
If the child has fever, discomfort or oral pain and wants to eat about half an hour before taking antipyretic drugs (acetaminophen or ibuprofen should be selected).
Prevention is the most important thing-preventive measures are exactly the same as hand-foot-mouth disease. Good personal hygiene habits should be developed, especially washing hands frequently and correctly.
During the period of high incidence, try to avoid going to places where people are concentrated and the space is relatively closed or semi-closed, including kindergartens, schools, early childhood education centers, supermarkets, shopping malls, amusement parks and other public places.
At present, China has independently developed the world’s first inactivated enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccine, This will be the most powerful weapon to prevent herpetic angina, hand-foot-mouth disease, aseptic meningitis, brainstem encephalitis, polio-like paralysis and other diseases caused by EV71 virus infection, and can reduce the occurrence of severe and death cases of herpetic angina, hand-foot-mouth disease.
Inactivated enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccine is used for children aged from 6 months to 5 years old. The basic immunization procedure is 2 doses with an interval of 1 month. Whether booster immunization is needed is not yet determined. One dose (0.5 ml) at a time is recommended to be vaccinated at the deltoid muscle of the upper arm. Those who have the conditions can consider vaccination.