Pregnant women’s body function is in a special state, diabetes at this time, called [gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)]. The incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus for pregnant women in our country is increasing year by year. Many expectant mothers eat a lot during pregnancy, for fear of insufficient nutrition for their children. As a result, when the prenatal examination was conducted, the doctor told her that blood sugar was high and they should be careful of gestational diabetes mellitus.
Many people do not understand, isn’t it better to have more nutrition during pregnancy? Why do you want to check blood sugar during pregnancy?
Harm of gestational diabetes mellitus
Blood sugar examination during pregnancy is very important. Gestational diabetes mellitus is harmful to both mothers and children.
1. Harm to mothers
Increase the incidence of spontaneous abortion and hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy; Affect the immunity of pregnant women and are prone to infection (urinary tract infection and mycotic vaginitis are common); Diabetes mellitus ketoacidosis during pregnancy, etc. Polyhydramnios, macrosomia, and eventually dystocia, postpartum hemorrhage.
2. Harm to fetus
Increase the risks of macrosomia, fetal intrauterine growth restriction, abortion and premature delivery; Increase the incidence of shoulder dystocia and various birth injuries.
3. Harm to newborns
Increase the incidence of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and hypocalcemia; Neonates are prone to hypoglycemia.
Check blood sugar in what?
The best screening time is 24 to 28 weeks of pregnancy. However, for expectant mothers with high-risk factors, it is recommended to directly perform 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at the first prenatal examination to make a definite diagnosis. Repeat the test when necessary in the third trimester of pregnancy, because an occasional excessive blood sugar level does not represent gestational diabetes mellitus.
High risk factors
Obesity (especially severe obesity), first-degree relatives suffering from type 2 diabetes, history of gestational diabetes or macrosomia, polycystic ovary syndrome, repeated positive urine sugar, etc.
How to do when blood sugar is high?
For expectant mothers, the best blood sugar control plan is to control diet and exercise properly.
It is suggested to eat like this:
- A small number of meals, timing, quantitative, thickness collocation; Eat more foods with high dietary fiber, such as buckwheat, bean products, konjac and various vegetables; Reduce the intake of high sugar fruits, such as watermelons, apples, pears, oranges, etc.; Increasing the protein in staple food and eating in the order of soup-vegetables-proteins-staple food can reduce the intake of staple food, thus controlling the increase of postprandial blood sugar.
It is suggested to move like this:
- At least half an hour of aerobic exercise should be carried out every day. The simplest way to exercise is to walk quickly. Yoga and swimming are also acceptable, but safety should be paid attention to.
It is necessary to ensure that the weight gain does not exceed 1 kg per week after entering the second trimester of pregnancy. If you gain more than 1 kg on the basis of diet control and proper exercise, you should consult a doctor in time.
Adding insulin to control blood sugar
If expectant mothers still cannot control their blood sugar well by diet adjustment and exercise, they need to add insulin, and doctors will adjust the insulin dose at any time according to your physiological characteristics.
In addition, the American Academy of Obstetricians and Gynecologists does not recommend oral hypoglycemic drugs during pregnancy.
Attention should be paid to reexamination after delivery.
About 50% of women suffering from gestational diabetes will develop chronic diabetes within 20 years after delivery. Blood sugar should be tested at the 6th to 12th weeks after delivery. Oral glucose tolerance test is recommended.
Blood sugar test is carried out every 1-3 years after delivery. If there is any abnormality, diet control should be carried out first, and reexamination should be carried out again after 1-2 weeks. If there is still any abnormality, hypoglycemic drugs should be used.
At the same time, about 2/3 of gestational diabetes patients will develop diabetes again during the next pregnancy, and women with obesity are more likely to develop gestational diabetes again. Therefore, attention should still be paid to maintaining a healthy lifestyle after delivery.
I wish all mothers a smooth delivery of strong instead of fat babies!
Responsible Editor: Zhang Jingyuan
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