The statement that “medicine is not as good as food” has affected many Chinese.
For patients with kidney diseases, especially patients with chronic kidney diseases, how to eat is indeed very important.
Diet and nutrition prescriptions are important components of the treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease, but what doctors say about nutrition prescriptions is not to let patients [nourish], but to tell everyone how to [eat less].
When will what start to restrict his diet?
For nephrotic patients with normal renal function, such as urinary system infection, urinary system stones and mild glomerulonephritis, there is no need for special dietary restrictions.
However, diet should be adjusted according to other conditions of patients. For example, patients with stones should drink as much water as possible and eat less food containing a large amount of oxalic acid (spinach, asparagus, chocolate, etc.) and high purine (seafood, broth, etc.).
For severe patients with acute kidney injury, it is much more significant to actively control the disease than to adjust diet at this time, and there is no need to deliberately emphasize nutrition and diet.
It is patients with chronic kidney disease who really need to restrict diet.
Restriction protein can delay the progression of nephropathy.
Metabolic waste generated during protein catabolism will increase the burden on the kidney, so it is necessary to limit the protein content in the diet.
For patients with chronic kidney disease and in the early stage of dialysis, a small amount of high-quality protein diet plays a vital role in delaying the progression of kidney disease and prolonging the time to enter dialysis.
We can responsibly tell everyone that any rumoured tonic, whether food or health care products, has no definite evidence to reverse the deterioration of renal function. Only by reducing the intake of protein in diet is the best nutritional principle to delay the progression of kidney disease.
How to restrict protein?
Since protein is a necessity for our survival, protein intake cannot be completely banned.
What does the so-called [small amount of high quality] mean by making what?
A small amount
According to the degree of proteinuria and glomerular filtration rate, it is recommended that the daily protein intake of patients with chronic kidney disease should be 0.6 g per kilogram of body weight.
In other words, a person weighing 60kg does not consume more than 36g of protein per day. How much is it? The following data are for reference:
One or two staple foods contain 4 grams of protein.
An egg contains 8 grams of protein
One bag of milk contains 8 grams of protein.
One or two meat contains 9 grams of protein,
Half a couple of beans contain 9 grams of protein.
Refers to the protein rich in essential amino acids, mainly including fish, eggs, milk and soybean protein. Soybean protein refers specifically to the protein contained in green beans, soybeans and black beans. Therefore, on the basis of very low protein quantification, try to eat the above protein.
When necessary, doctors may add a drug called-ketoacid, which can combine nitrogen substances in the body and convert them into proteins, thus achieving the purpose of supplementing proteins and turning waste into treasure.
What about other nutrients?
Apart from a small amount of high-quality protein diet, low salt and low fat are two more important indicators.
The daily intake of sodium chloride is 2-3g. If there is intravenous drip and sodium chloride injection is used, then this part of sodium chloride should also be calculated within the intake, and less salt should be eaten.
The daily lipid intake does not exceed 60 ~ 70g, and the lipid here mainly refers to vegetable oil used for cooking.
As for vitamins, trace elements, etc., there is no need for special restrictions or special supplements.
Nutritional principles during dialysis
Once dialysis is started, the dietary restrictions will change.
Protein intake should be increased from 0.6 g per kilogram of body weight to 1-1.2 g per day. Especially for patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis, the daily protein intake is even more than 1.2 g per kilogram of body weight due to more peritoneal protein loss.
However, although the protein diet restrictions were released during this period, other material requirements were tightened.
The daily water intake should be the urine volume of the previous day plus 500 milliliters.
This water intake is not only the amount of water drunk, but also the water in food, such as porridge, soup, vegetables and fruits.
Uremia patients are very prone to high potassium, because almost all foods contain potassium, so it is difficult to limit potassium.
In order to avoid hyperkalemia, on the one hand, the cooking method of diet is very important, try not to eat vegetable soup, do not use low sodium salt and low sodium soy sauce to cook; On the other hand, the amount of vegetables and fruits to be eaten should be controlled very little.
Phosphorus is also an element widely found in various foods. Its sources mainly come from two types, one is foods rich in protein and fat, such as peanuts, seafood, meat, eggs and milk, etc. The other is artificially processed foods, which are mainly cooked foods, including cakes, cream, chocolate, cooked meat, sauces or other snacks.
In contrast, these artificially processed foods are more likely to increase blood phosphorus, so dialysis patients are encouraged to cook their own food and prevent long-term consumption of ready-to-eat foods.
For patients with chronic kidney disease, the general principle is to pay more attention to nutritional composition, rather than random [supplement].
Proper and scientific diet can help control the disease condition and delay the progress to a great extent.
If you blindly supplement it indiscriminately, you may turn the nutrition you supplement into a deadly [poison].