Many parents see that their children are smaller than other children, and they always wonder [is the child’s height normal? ]. In fact, it is normal most of the time, but some situations still need to be paid attention to.
Small children may be a disease called dwarfism. The incidence rate of this disease is about 3%, with an average of one in 50 children, of which more than 60% are caused by lack of growth hormone, which is also medically called growth hormone deficiency (GDH).
This kind of small and short stature can be cured, but if you miss the treatment age of 4 ~ 15 years old, you may leave a lifelong regret for your child.
The most important thing is to find out the abnormal height of the child early. So, how should parents monitor and evaluate whether the child’s height is normal?
Does the child how grow normally?
The first two years of life are the fastest growing period in our lives:
- The average length of the newborn is about 50 cm. It can reach 63 cm in 100 days; About 75 cm at one year old; The average length can reach 85 cm at the age of two.
After two years old, they will grow 5 ~ 7 cm tall every year. After entering puberty (girls from 11 ~ 12 years old to 17 ~ 18 years old, boys from 13 ~ 14 years old to 18 ~ 20 years old), with the appearance of secondary sexual characteristics, the height growth will accelerate again. After girls develop breasts and boys grow testicles, they will grow 8 ~ 10 cm tall every year.
Pay more attention to observation before the age of two
Height growth is a part of growth and development. Besides growth hormone, nutrition, exercise, sleep and healthy psychology are also very important influencing factors, especially for children before the age of 2.
At this time, if parents feel that they are small, they should pay more attention to balanced diet, proper outdoor sports, adequate sleep and creating a warm and relaxed growth environment.
In addition, attention should also be paid to the elimination of congenital hypothyroidism. This disease is also called dementia. Children with this disease are not only not tall, but also have mental retardation. The earlier such children are found and treated, the smaller the impact on later life.
After two years old, he saw a doctor in time when he found any
After the child is 2 years old, if other factors are excluded from the impact on the figure, the height growth every six months is less than 2 cm, and the height growth every year is less than 5 cm. It is best to take the child to the hospital for examination in time. Doctors will carry out targeted examinations according to the specific performance of the child, family history, etc.
The main inspections are as follows:
- Growth hormone drug stimulation test: to see if the child’s growth hormone level and secretion function are normal. X-ray examination: measuring the child’s bone age, bone age obviously lagging behind age is the characteristic manifestation of growth hormone deficiency; At the same time, see whether the epiphyseal line of the child is closed. The treatment of dwarfism must be carried out before the line is closed, otherwise there is no therapeutic value. Thyroid function: exclude whether the child has thyroid abnormalities. Craniocerebral magnetic resonance: determine whether the organ secreting growth hormone-pituitary gland has abnormal manifestations such as shrinkage. At the same time, diseases such as pituitary tumor are excluded.
In case it is dwarfism, how to treat it?
This short stature is caused by growth hormone deficiency, which can be treated by supplementing growth hormone. Because growth hormone is protein, oral administration will lose the therapeutic effect and requires subcutaneous injection. After simple training, parents can give their children subcutaneous injection every night before going to bed.
At the same time, the treatment of dwarfism needs to be adhered to until the epiphyseal line of the child is closed, which usually lasts for 5, 6 or even 8, 9 years.
After the diagnosis is made of short stature caused by growth hormone deficiency, the doctor will explain the child’s medication plan, method and treatment cycle with the parents in detail. Parents should also be fully prepared, carefully started and patiently insisted, which is very important for their children’s future health.
On the Side Effects of Drugs
Because growth hormone is used for a long time and many parents have an inexplicable fear of [hormone], many people will worry about the side effects of the drug and dare not use it.
This kind of worry is unnecessary in the use of growth hormone. Now a large number of clinical trials have proved that growth hormone produced abroad and at home is safe and reliable.
The common side effects are redness and swelling and pain in the injection area, which can disappear within 3-5 days.
There is also hypothyroxinemia, which mostly occurs 2-3 months after treatment and can return to normal after oral thyroxine.
In order to avoid this kind of situation, doctors will require that they should return to the hospital once a month within six months after the treatment starts, and then gradually extend it to three months to six months.
At the same time of treatment, some children with better curative effects may not be able to keep up with nutrition. Therefore, parents should pay attention to giving their children a balanced diet, adequate outdoor exercise and sleep, which is also very critical for their children’s growth.
All parents should regularly measure their children’s height growth, find abnormalities in the early stage, and treat them in time, so as not to let their children lose the chance to grow taller and leave a lifelong regret.
Responsible Editor: Zhang Jingyuan
This article is authorized and published by the Science Popularization Branch of the Chinese Medical Association, and is the entry of the 2nd National Science Popularization Ability Competition for Medicine.