What is advanced cancer?
Cancer is at an advanced stage, Often implies that diversion has taken place, In a state of continuous progress and aggravation, Completely lose the hope of [radical cure]. The [radical cure] mentioned here, It refers to the clinical (naked eye, microscope, imaging) that the cancer focus in the body has been completely removed. Symptoms disappear completely. In fact, some tiny cancer foci may survive unknown until the cancer recurs. Advanced cancer does not necessarily mean metastasis and spread. For example, some intracranial malignant tumors, although not metastasized to organs other than the head, still belong to advanced stage. Cancer with metastasis and spread is not necessarily advanced cancer, such as some metastatic testicular cancer and thyroid cancer, which can still achieve [radical] curative effect. Advanced cancer can only be given up treatment? In traditional thinking, Advanced cancer means giving up treatment, Any treatment is ineffective. Most of the [treatment] mentioned here refer to the regular treatment of the three major cancers: surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. It is necessary to explain that, There is indeed a big difference in treatment between advanced cancer and non-advanced cancer-those cancers that have the possibility of radical cure. On the one hand, from the perspective of treatment purpose, the treatment of advanced cancer lies in controlling cancer, delaying cancer progression, relieving symptoms and ultimately improving quality of life. As for prolonging survival time, it is difficult. However, the therapeutic purpose of non-advanced cancer is to completely eliminate the known cancer focus as much as possible and achieve the [radical] effect. On the other hand, in terms of therapeutic measures, advanced cancer is more inclined to systemic and conservative treatment, such as chemotherapy and targeted drug therapy. However, non-advanced cancers tend to be treated locally and aggressively. Such as surgery and radiotherapy. Surgery and radiotherapy are useful in the treatment of advanced cancer. Surgery and radiotherapy can be used for advanced cancer in the following situations. 1. Treatment can relieve symptoms and improve quality of life, such as advanced malignant tumors in abdominal cavity. Often compress the digestive tract, resulting in digestive tract obstruction, mainly manifested as inability to eat, severe abdominal pain or stool can not be pulled out, not handled will be fatal. At this time, surgery can be performed: or reduce the tumor volume to relieve intestinal obstruction; Or make an artificial opening on the belly to allow feces to bypass the obstructive intestinal segment compressed by the tumor and be discharged from the opening on the belly. Or insert a tube, Allowing food to bypass the obstructed esophagus or stomach compressed by the tumor, To enter the small intestine, It is digested and absorbed to provide nutrition. For example, some advanced cancers compress nerves. Causing severe pain, Surgical removal of the tumor that compressed the nerve, It can effectively relieve the pain caused by cancer. 2. Hemostasis Many advanced cancers can cause massive hemorrhage. In the short term, the patient’s life is endangered, At this time, local treatment of surgery is needed. Give hemostasis. Such as malignant tumors of trachea and intestinal tract, There was a massive hemorrhage, Doctors often use endoscopes to enter the trachea and intestinal tract. Find the bleeding site, Electrocoagulation to stop the bleeding. If you can’t stop it, We need an open chest, an open abdomen to stop bleeding. There are also some cases. It is to stop bleeding by [vascular intervention]. With long and thin catheters, Along the aorta, Find the branch of the artery that dominates the bleeding site, Then hit the embolic agent, Block up the blood vessels, So as to realize hemostasis. 3. That treatment can prolong the service life. When the tumor metastasis foci only exist in one organ, the tumor size is relatively small and the number is very small (1-2), While the primary lesion is being treated, The metastasis can be treated by surgery or radiotherapy, This can approach the curative effect of early cancer [radical cure]. For example, colon cancer, liver metastasis, At the same time of surgical removal of colon cancer, It can also remove metastases from the liver at the same time. In addition, Radiofrequency ablation can also be used instead of surgery to treat liver metastases. For example, cervical cancer has brain metastases, If the transfer of other parts is excluded, Brain metastases can be operated on, [Stereotactic radiosurgery] (such as the more popular [gamma knife]), Or whole cranial radiation to treat brain metastases. 4. Prevention and treatment of bone destruction caused by bone metastasis, bone pain, advanced cancer. If bone metastasis occurs, It will seriously affect the firmness of the bone, Pathological fractures are extremely easy to occur. Once pathological fractures occur, It’s hard to heal, Seriously affecting the quality of life of patients, Even life-threatening. Surgical methods, Prophylactic plate implantation, Or pour bone cement into the bone metastasis focus, It can prevent fracture. When multiple bone metastases occur, Radiopharmaceuticals, such as radium 223, can be injected intravenously. Radiopharmaceuticals can be ingested by these bone metastases, thus killing cancer cells in the bone and relieving bone pain. 5. Relieving compression on the spinal cord Some advanced cancers may transfer to the spinal canal, compressing the spinal cord and even causing paraplegia. Surgery can remove these tumor bodies to prevent paraplegia.