Huang Jie’s feet have been swollen inexplicably recently. The swollen ankles are out of sight. A pit appears when her fingers are pressed down, which cannot be recovered for a long time.
At the hospital, the doctor told Huang Jie that there were many reasons for foot swelling: problems with heart, liver, kidney, endocrine system or drainage of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels could cause limb edema.
According to the results of Huang Jie’s blood and urine tests, Huang Jie’s foot swelling is caused by nephrotic syndrome.
[Is nephrotic syndrome what? Huang Jie asked the doctor anxiously to find out.
Is what nephrotic syndrome?
Under normal circumstances, the kidney is like a sieve, which can filter out useless or even harmful things (metabolic wastes) in blood to form urine for discharge. At the same time, it can prevent specific substances from passing through and retain the [beneficial] part of the blood (albumin). Medicine calls this sieve the [glomerular filtration barrier].
If this sieve breaks down, The [good] things in the blood (albumin) will enter the urine through the enlarged sieve, Form [proteinuria]. When the loss of proteinuria reaches a certain level, the rate of human albumin regeneration [cannot catch up with] the rate of urine loss, and [hypoalbuminemia] will occur. In addition to other symptoms, it becomes [nephrotic syndrome]. Seriously speaking, nephrotic syndrome is characterized by the following points:
- Mass proteinuria, hypoproteinemia, edema and hyperlipidemia
Mass proteinuria refers to the protein content in urine excreted within 24 hours exceeding 3.5 g, while hypoproteinemia refers to the albumin content in human serum less than 30 g/L. These two points are the necessary conditions for doctors to make [nephrotic syndrome] diagnosis.
Why do you get nephrotic syndrome?
[Why do I get this disease? Did you eat the wrong what food? [Huang Jie really felt wronged.
The doctor smiled and comforted Huang Jie: Nephrotic syndrome is really not as simple as eating one or two things wrong. Its etiology is generally divided into primary and secondary categories.
Primary nephrotic syndrome refers to the kidney itself is out of order, glomerular filtration barrier is not complete, is the filter sieve is not complete, a large amount of protein excreted through urine. At present, the cause of primary nephrotic syndrome in medicine is not very clear.
Secondary nephrotic syndrome refers to kidney damage caused by other factors. Common causes include diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus, hepatitis B virus infection, drugs, tumors, etc. Patients with the above diseases are more likely to suffer from nephrotic syndrome.
Does nephrotic syndrome have what manifestations?
[Why do you have swollen feet when you get this disease? Apart from swollen feet, what other manifestations will there be? Is it serious? Huang Jie is very confused.
Edema, especially edema of both lower limbs, is the most common manifestation of nephrotic syndrome patients. In addition, limb edema, pleural effusion and ascites occur.
If you are more careful when going to the toilet, patients can also find the existence of foam urine.
The so-called [foam urine], is the solution out of the urine has a long-lasting foam. However, it should be noted that if the foam in the urine only exists when it is solved, it will dissipate quickly within tens of seconds, so there is no need for tension. It must be a long-lasting foam to prompt the existence of proteinuria.
[Ah, yes, yes! As soon as you said it, I remembered that there was indeed a lot of foam in my urine during this period of time, and it never dissipated in the urinal! [Huang Jie suddenly realized.
[How can this disease be treated? Just now I heard a young man say that he had the disease and had to take 10 hormones every day at first! Hormones are terrible. Can’t something happen if you eat so much? And he said that he had a kidney puncture and took out a little kidney, which sounds very scary! Huang Jie started a new round of doubts.
How should nephrotic syndrome be treated?
[Kidney puncture is not as scary as you said.] Hearing Huang Jie’s words, the doctor was anxious and quickly gave Huang Jie the legendary kidney puncture in popular science.
If nephrotic syndrome is compared to a house, Treatment metaphor is a house decoration plan, kidney puncture is the process of entering the house to check the internal structure. Only by making clear the specific structure of the [house] can we have a more comprehensive understanding of the disease, and at the same time help to formulate more detailed and individualized treatment plans. Click to view popular science articles on kidney puncture.
In terms of treatment, glucocorticoid, as the basic drug for the treatment of nephrotic syndrome, is an unavoidable topic. Especially at the beginning of treatment, the dosage of hormone is relatively large, and many patients will have the following conditions:
- Full moon face, buffalo back acne obesity infection digestive system discomfort osteoporosis
However, with the control of the disease condition, the dosage of hormone will gradually decrease and the related side effects will also gradually decrease.
It is worth noting that the treatment of nephrotic syndrome is a protracted war. During the course of the disease, we must review regularly, take drugs according to the doctor’s advice, and do not reduce or stop drugs by ourselves! Some patients do not change the hormone dose or even stop taking drugs according to the doctor’s advice after their symptoms are relieved, resulting in relapse of the disease with unimaginable consequences.
[It seems that hormone therapy is very common for this disease. So many people have experienced it, and I don’t need to be afraid! A rare smile appeared on Huang Jie’s face. [Then besides taking medicine and seeing a doctor regularly to adjust medicine, I also need to pay attention to what in my life? Can I still dance square dancing with my sisters? Huang Jie asked again.
I was about to tell you! You asked, one step ahead of me! The doctor said with a smile.
With nephrotic syndrome, what should I pay attention to in my life?
Patients with nephrotic syndrome need more rest, On the basis of [not feeling tired by oneself], moderate activities should be carried out to avoid overwork and staying up late to cause aggravation or relapse of the disease. And because the albumin level in the patient’s body is reduced and the resistance is weak, external contact should be appropriately reduced to prevent cross infection. Therefore, Huang Jie said that square dancing can be performed, but it must be done according to one’s capabilities.
In terms of diet, you should eat digestible, light and clean food. Eat less processed food and reduce the intake of salt and grease so as not to increase water and sodium retention and blood lipid content.
In the early stage of the disease, due to more protein loss in urine, higher high-quality protein intake can be appropriately given. In the later stage of the disease, a small amount of high-quality protein intake should be given to slow down the chronic renal function damage related to the disease. (Egg, milk, fish and soybean protein in animal protein are common high-quality proteins! )
[Then I have some activities, pay attention to rest, eat a light diet, eat less fat meat, cook less salt, put less oil, and eat some fish, milk and other high-quality proteins in an appropriate amount. It doesn’t feel too difficult! Plus taking medicine, can this disease be cured? [Huang Jie looked forward to it.
[Treatment according to the doctor’s advice can control the disease condition to the greatest extent. At the same time, the disease has a characteristic, even after the disease is completely controlled, even if you don’t pay attention to it, there is still the possibility of relapse.] The doctor said seriously.
[There is still a possibility of relapse, then do I still need to treat it? ] Huang Jie a face of surprise.
Whether you eat breakfast or not, you will be hungry at 12 noon, so there is no need to eat breakfast? The same is true for treatment. If the disease can be controlled without affecting the quality of life, what’s wrong with taking a little medicine every day? And Huang Jie, you are so careful, I believe you can cooperate with the doctor to control the disease to the greatest extent.]