[Stones in Bladder]: A Collection of Stones Prevention and Treatment Problems

Calculus grows in the biliary tract system of cattle is called bezoar. What if it grows in the urinary system of human beings? Absolutely not [human yellow], but urinary calculi. Calculi are called urinary calculi when they grow in the bladder. Bladder calculi are more common urinary calculi. Bladder calculi are an ancient disease and have been found in the bladder of mummies since 4800 BC.

How is bladder stone formed?

The formation mechanism of urinary calculi is not completely clear, But it is now accepted that, Its formation is not caused by a single factor, But is the result of a combination of factors, And the concentration of [stone-forming substance] in urine is too high, Causing [urine supersaturation], It is the most important driving force in the process of stone formation. The process of stone formation, There are roughly several steps of [crystal nucleation] [crystal growth] [crystal aggregation] [crystal retention]… Metaphorically speaking, It is a process of [snowballing] from small to large. Bladder stones may be [born] and [developed] in the bladder, or they may come from the upper urinary tract, i.e. Stones originating from the kidney and ureter, which continue to grow with the urine flowing into the bladder. Small bladder stones may be discharged out of the body with the urine and may not even cause symptoms. However, larger stones are more naughty and may be obstructed anywhere in the urethra, causing corresponding symptoms such as dysuria and micturition pain.

What are the causes of bladder stones?

Bladder stones are divided into [primary] and [secondary]. Primary bladder stones refer to stones formed in the bladder due to abnormal systemic factors such as nutrition and metabolism, with low incidence rate, mostly found in boys, and related to low protein and low phosphate diet. A few occur in adults, Most of them are related to dehydration and abnormal calcium metabolism. Secondary bladder stones are secondary to local factors. Common causes include infection, foreign bodies, lower urinary tract obstruction (such as urinary tract obstruction caused by prostatic hyperplasia) and chronic urinary retention caused by neurogenic bladder. In addition, secondary bladder stones also include stones from kidney and ureter.

Who is easy to get bladder stones?

In general, Men, infants or the elderly, residents of economically backward areas, Bladder stones are more likely to occur in men, with a male-to-female ratio of about 10: 1, mainly due to the slender and curved male urethra, and the elderly prostatic hyperplasia is easy to cause lower urinary tract obstruction and induce stones. In economically backward areas, bladder stones are common in infants and young children, mainly caused by malnutrition; In economically developed regions, Bladder stones are more common in the elderly over 50 years old, It is mainly caused by obstruction caused by prostatic hyperplasia, Moreover, with the aging of the social population, the complication of bladder stones with prostatic hyperplasia has an increasing trend. With the development of social economy and the improvement of living standards in our country, the total incidence rate of bladder stones has decreased significantly, but bladder stones are still very common in some economically relatively backward areas such as Kashgar region in Xinjiang and Rongshui mountain area in Guangxi.

What are the manifestations of bladder stones?

The main symptoms of bladder stones are urination pain, dysuria and hematuria. The pain can be near the small stomach. Or the perineum, It is often accompanied by frequent urination and inability to hold back urination. At the end of the day, the pain may worsen. In the process of urinating, Bladder stones often block the outlet of bladder urination, This may cause sudden interruption of urination with severe pain, This kind of pain often radiates to the penis, penis head or perineum. After urination is interrupted, Patients need to shake their bodies, squat or lie down, When the blocked stone is removed from the bladder outlet, To continue urinating, Pain will also be relieved accordingly. As the inner wall of the bladder is repeatedly stimulated by stones, urine may turn red when urinating, which is often more obvious when urinating is about to end. A few patients, bladder stones can have no obvious symptoms, which will be found only when ultrasound or X-ray examination is performed. What manifestations will children’s bladder stones have? After children’s bladder stones block the outlet of bladder urination, they often suffer from severe pain, crying loudly and sweating profusely, and often pull the penis or scratch the perineum with their hands to change various postures in order to relieve the pain.

Doubt oneself got bladder stone how to do?

Because many symptoms of bladder stones are not unique to it, according to the description of symptoms, if you suspect that you have bladder stones, it is suggested that you’d better go to a regular hospital to make it clear, and do a urinary ultrasound or X-ray examination to initially understand whether you have bladder stones.

How do doctors diagnose bladder stones?

Because many symptoms of bladder stones are not unique to them, some imaging examinations are needed to clarify them, such as ultrasound examination, X-ray examination, etc. When necessary, transurethral cystoscopy is also needed to confirm the diagnosis. Ultrasound examination is simple and practical, without radiation. Although X-ray examination will receive some rays, it is an important means to diagnose bladder stones. Transurethral cystoscopy is the most reliable method for the diagnosis of bladder stones, especially for some stones that cannot be seen by X-ray, it is clear at a glance under cystoscopy, and it can also be clear whether there are other pathological changes in the lower urinary tract. However, cystoscopy has certain pain, so ultrasound or X-ray is still needed for preliminary understanding.

Does bladder stone need to be treated? How?

The main influence of bladder stones is that they will cause local damage, obstruction and infection. Due to the mechanical stimulation of stones on the inner wall of bladder, bladder mucosa often presents chronic inflammatory changes. Severe bladder ulcer may occasionally occur, Even through the vagina, rectum, Urinary fistula is formed. Bladder stones are easy to block bladder outlet, posterior urethra, Causing dysuria. Long-term persistent obstruction, Bladder detrusor muscle will thicken, bladder ureter [anti-reflux mechanism] will also be damaged, leading to ureter dilatation and hydronephrosis in the upper reaches of the bladder, causing renal function damage and even developing uremia. When the bladder inner wall mucosa is stimulated by stones, inflammation and other stimuli for a long time, its local epithelial tissue can undergo proliferative changes, and finally canceration may occur.

Can take medicine cure bladder stone?

Generally speaking, bladder stones with small size, smooth surface and no distal obstruction can be discharged out of the body by themselves, supplemented by stone removal drugs, which is beneficial to the discharge of such stones. In addition, the vast majority of bladder stones need surgical treatment. Of course, whether to take medicine alone to expel stones needs to be based on the doctor’s advice.

Do bladder stones need surgery?

The treatment of bladder stones follows two principles: one is to remove the stones, and the other is to remove the causes of stone formation. Bladder stones can be [aborigines] of the bladder or [outsiders] from its upstream, such as kidney or ureter. The former is often accompanied by distal urinary tract obstruction or foreign bodies and other causes, which must be removed at the same time of stone removal. The latter may also require treatment of renal and ureteral stones to avoid future trouble. Except for some small stones, the vast majority of bladder stones require surgical treatment, including extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, endoscopic surgery and open surgery.

How to prevent bladder stones?

1. Drink plenty of waterA large amount of drinking water is a simple and effective method to prevent and treat bladder stones of various components. Drinking plenty of water can dilute urine, Prevent high concentrations of salts and minerals from snowballing into stones. Generally speaking, the appropriate amount of drinking water is to keep the daily urine volume above 2 liters (for the common 500 ml mineral water, Four bottles of urine), the amount of water is about 2.5 to 4 liters. If you sweat too much due to work, activity or other reasons, you need to drink more water. In addition, the premise of the above drinking water advice is that the heart function and kidney function are normal.2. Cellulose and vitamin A supplementationCommon ways to reduce stone occurrence also include supplementing cellulose in an appropriate amount, such as eating rice bran and vegetables. Supplement foods rich in vitamin A, such as carrots, broccoli, etc. In addition, if you have suffered from bladder stones before, it is better to do a composition analysis of the stones after removal or discharge of the stones by surgery or other methods, so as to identify the specific types of stones, which is helpful to better prevent the occurrence of stones.3. Preventive measures vary depending on the type of stoneIn addition, if you have suffered from bladder stones before, it is better to make an analysis of the composition of the stones after the stones are removed or discharged by surgery or other methods, so as to determine the specific types of stones, which is helpful to better prevent the occurrence of stones.

What are the taboos for bladder stones?

Patients with bladder stones need to adjust their diet according to the type of stones. For example, if they are calcium-containing stones, they should control calcium intake in an appropriate amount, such as milk, cheese and other dairy products as well as salt, vitamin D, high protein diet, etc. More targeted prevention programs need to be formulated according to the specific type of stones.

Does bladder calculus affect sexual life?

Smaller asymptomatic bladder stones may not affect sexual life, but if the stones are large or various discomfort symptoms occur, such as pain and dysuria, it will not only affect sexual life.

Can physical exercise treat bladder stones?

Appropriate increase in people’s activity volume can promote blood circulation, which is conducive to the formation of a large amount of urine. While increasing activity, it is also conducive to regulating metabolism and preventing metabolic disorders.