Although the thyroid gland is small and inconspicuous, the physiological function of thyroid hormone secreted by it is very large. Because except red blood cells, brain, testis and lymphatic system, all tissues and cells in the whole body have thyroid hormone receptors, and there are really many areas where it can exert its power!
Main Physiological Functions of Thyroid Hormones
Step 1 Promote metabolism
Physiological thyroid hormone can promote the synthesis and decomposition of sugar, protein and fat, while super physiological dose will increase blood sugar, reduce blood cholesterol, and protein decomposition is greater than synthesis.
2. Promote growth and development
It can enhance the activity of growth hormone and is especially important for the growth, development and maturation of brain and bone in childhood.
3. Promote differentiation and maturation of nervous system
It plays a very important role in the maturation of cerebral cortex. Thyroid hormone deficiency will lead to mental retardation, deafness and dementia in fetus and newborn period. Childhood can lead to growth retardation; Adults will lead to memory loss and slow response.
Specific to various organ systems
1. Cardiovascular system
Excessive thyroid hormone will cause cardiac rhythm to increase and cardiac contractility to increase. In severe cases, it will cause cardiac enlargement and heart failure, and atrial fibrillation will occur in the elderly. On the contrary, it will cause slow heart rhythm, weakened cardiac contractility and even pericardial effusion.
2. Nervous system
Hyperthyroidism patients are often characterized by irritability, dysphoria, anxiety and inattention due to excessive excitement of the central nervous system. However, people with low nail expression are indifferent, memory loss and excessive lethargy.
3. Digestive system
When thyroid hormone is excessive, gastrointestinal peristalsis accelerates, which is manifested as easy hunger and good hunger, and the number of defecations increases. On the contrary, gastrointestinal peristalsis slows down, which is manifested by eating less, defecating less or constipation.
4. Reproductive system
Thyroid hormone deficiency can cause gonadal growth retardation, anovulation, infertility, menstrual disorder and functional uterine bleeding. Excessive thyroid hormone causes rare menstruation, prolonged menstruation, difficulty in conception, abortion, premature delivery, fetal malformation, etc.
Generally speaking, when thyroxine secretion is high, it will become [hyperthyroidism] and the body has intense metabolic manifestations. On the contrary, if thyroid function is low, it is called [hypothyroidism/hypothyroidism].
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