TORCH is an English abbreviation for a group of pathogenic microorganisms, commonly known as [Eugenic Four] or [Eugenic Five]. From the name, it can be seen that this examination is related to the health of the next generation.
Many expectant mothers know little about this test and are scared when they see the positive results. They are afraid that their babies will have deformities and do not know what to do.
Let’s take a closer look at this inspection.
TORCH means what?
TORCH is an abbreviation for a group of pathogenic microorganisms:
- Toxoplasma gondii (TOX); R rubella virus (RV); C cytomegalovirus (CMV); Herpes simplex virus (HSV), including type I and type II; O represents other pathogenic microorganisms (Others), such as hepatitis virus (especially hepatitis B virus), EB virus, parvovirus B19, HIV virus, Treponema pallidum, etc.
TORCH detection generally includes [TRCH] four items, i.e. IgM and IgG antibodies of Toxoplasma gondii, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus-IgM can reflect the infection situation in recent January to February, while IgG can represent the immunity of human body to corresponding viruses.
What do you think of the result?
The test results of each pathogen in TORCH may show the following four conditions.
1. IgG negative, IgM negative
It is suggested that the examinee has probably not been infected with these therapeutic microorganisms in the past, but false negative is not excluded.
If the result is found during pregnancy preparation, pregnancy can be achieved, but it belongs to a high-risk group (the risk of infection transmitted to the fetus in early pregnancy is higher).
- Rubella vaccination before pregnancy; Check again in the first trimester of pregnancy to find and treat early.
2. IgG was negative and IgM was positive
It is suggested that IgM has been infected recently, or it may be acute infection, or it may be caused by other interference factors.
Suggestion: Review after 2 weeks.
- If IgG turns positive, it indicates acute infection. Those who prepare for pregnancy should postpone pregnancy. Those who are already pregnant need further examination to determine whether the fetus is infected. If IgG continues to be negative, it indicates that IgM is false positive, no special treatment is required, and close follow-up is sufficient.
3. IgG positive, IgM negative
It means that you have been infected with the pathogenic microorganism, or have been vaccinated with the vaccine, and have developed immunity.
- Can conceive; Recurrent infection or reinfection (cytomegalovirus, rubella virus) should be paid attention to during pregnancy, especially in early pregnancy, and recurrent infection of herpes simplex virus should be paid attention to in late pregnancy.
4. IgG positive, IgM positive
It indicates that pregnant women are infected with this pathogenic microorganism, which may be primary infection or reinfection.
According to the specific results, further examination is needed to confirm the infection.
What is the significance?
Women are prone to infection of various pathogens in TORCH due to changes in endocrine and immune status during pregnancy.
TORCH examination before pregnancy is to know the immunity of women to these viruses, whether rubella vaccine is needed or whether they have certain immunity to other viruses, so as to guide the pregnancy time and precautions of women before pregnancy and achieve the purpose of eugenics.
When a pregnant woman is infected by any of these pathogenic microorganisms, It is likely that there are only mild [cold] symptoms or even no symptoms. However, pathogens can be transmitted to the fetus through the placenta, causing intrauterine infection of the fetus. This can affect the development of the embryo or fetus and may even lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes such as abortion, premature delivery and stillbirth. Even if they survive after birth, they may still leave serious congenital defects such as central nervous system disorders.
Early pregnancy screening can detect patients infected during pregnancy and treat them according to different situations as soon as possible.
Recommended examination during pregnancy preparation
At present, TORCH screening is not a mandatory item for pre-pregnancy or pregnancy tests.
However, according to the “Guidelines for Pre-pregnancy and Pregnancy Health Care” issued by the Obstetrics and Gynecology Association of the Chinese Medical Association in 2011:
TORCH screening is listed as the first choice for future reference in the first 3 months of pregnancy.
If acute infection is found after pregnancy, possible abortion, premature delivery, intrauterine stillbirth, etc. will cause huge psychological burden to expectant mothers and their families, which is a situation that no one wants to see.
Therefore, if conditions permit, TORCH examination is recommended during pregnancy preparation, especially in the following situations:
Both husband and wife, one of whom has had a history of deformed children and hereditary diseases;
Women who have suffered spontaneous abortion, stillbirth or disability at the time of birth in the past;
Women who have pets at home or like barbecue, raw or semi-cooked food.
In addition, if pregnant women have symptoms such as [cold], rash, blisters and the like, and have not been screened for TORCH, they can also selectively carry out TORCH, pathogen DNA/RNA examination, and check blood routine to assist in diagnosis. If there is any abnormality, follow the doctor’s advice and carry out treatment in time.