Why do diabetics lose weight?
Blood sugar is the body’s most important energy substance, The carbohydrates we eat are digested and absorbed, causing blood sugar to rise, which then stimulates insulin secretion and helps blood sugar to be used by organs. The blood sugar that cannot be used up is converted into fat and stored.
Diabetic patients suffer from insulin deficiency caused by islet hypofunction or insulin resistance, which leads to an increase in blood sugar and cannot accelerate the decomposition of fat and protein to supplement energy and heat, thus causing a large amount of fat and protein in the body to be consumed, so the human body will slowly lose weight and its resistance will decline.
When does what need to start gaining weight?
If you find it for the first time or repeatedly suffer from rapid emaciation in a short period of time, you should first go to the hospital for a comprehensive physical examination. Let the doctor formulate or adjust the hypoglycemic plan to stabilize blood sugar first. At the same time, other diseases that may cause emaciation should be excluded, such as celiac disease and thyroid diseases, which are often accompanied by type 1 diabetes. Weight gain cannot begin until the condition is stable and blood sugar is controlled.
How do underweight diabetics gain weight?
Step 1: Eat a healthy diet
(1) Regular and quantitative intake of carbohydrates
Carbohydrate intake is the key to blood sugar control. In addition to all sweet foods, common carbohydrate-containing foods include grains (rice, wheat, corn, etc.), fruits, nuts, vegetables (potatoes, sweet potatoes, etc.).
The ideal amount of carbohydrate intake varies from person to person because of the amount of exercise and insulin used by diabetics. Whether type 1 or type 2 diabetes, regular intake of a fixed amount of carbohydrate per meal and daily, combined with appropriate amount of exercise and drugs, is the basis for diabetes self-management.
How do you calculate the amount?
1) Calculate the standard weight = your height (cm)-105;
2) The average office worker multiplies this result by 25 ~ 30, and the already thin person multiplies by 30 to get an approximate figure, which is the total amount of calories needed in a day;
3) Recommended carbohydrates account for about 60% of the total calories.
For example, for a thin person 170 cm tall, the carbohydrate he should consume every day = (170-105) × 30 × 60% = 1 170 Kcal.
(2) Besides carbohydrates, there are also proteins and lipids.
Every meal, including extra meal and main meal, needs to be reasonably matched with carbohydrate, protein and fat, and with appropriate amount of vegetables and fruits. The main meal can choose the combination of carbohydrate + protein + fat, and the extra meal can choose the combination of carbohydrate + protein, or carbohydrate + fat.
- Breakfast: cereal + egg + milk + fruit; Lunch/dinner: cereal + fish/meat/poultry + beans and products + vegetables; Extra meals: cereal + yogurt/eggs; Cereals + nuts.
(3) Priority should be given to foods with high nutrients and high energy.
Diabetic patients with good blood sugar control, if they need to gain weight, can give priority to healthy foods that can provide rich and high-quality nutrients according to their eating habits.
Recommendation: Cereals are the main ingredients, with thick and thin ingredients, appropriate amount of fresh fruits and vegetables, potatoes, sufficient animal protein, sufficient milk and sufficient high-quality fat.
Not recommended: processed foods such as biscuits, snacks and cakes or foods with high energy and low nutrients such as fat meat, baked and fried foods. Do not drink sugary drinks.
These unrecommended foods may have the possibility of gaining weight in the short term, but the cost is to affect the control of blood sugar in the future and increase the risk of coronary heart disease, cerebral apoplexy and other diseases, which are not conducive to health in the long run.
(4) Blood glucose monitoring
In the process of weight gain and food intake, especially carbohydrate intake in diet, blood sugar should be measured in time on an empty stomach, 2 hours after three meals and when hypoglycemia symptoms occur, so as to understand the influence of food intake and types of meals and extra meals on blood sugar, thus further adjusting the dosage of drugs or insulin.
Step 2: Reasonable Exercise
(1) Pre-exercise assessment
Ask doctors to evaluate cardiopulmonary function, cardiovascular risks, diabetic complications, etc. Determine reasonable exercise amount, intensity and mode.
(2) Monitoring blood glucose before and after exercise
Blood sugar should be measured as frequently as possible before, during and after exercise. Generally, the blood sugar level before exercise is not lower than 5.6 mmol/L and not higher than 16.7 mmol/L.
If the blood sugar is too low or too high before exercise, or hypoglycemia occurs repeatedly, or the blood sugar fluctuates greatly, please do not exercise.
Through a period of exploration, we can understand the influence of exercise type and time on the blood sugar of patients, and adjust the dosage of drugs or insulin if necessary.
(3) Prevention of hypoglycemia
Carbohydrate foods, such as small packages of biscuits and chocolates, should be carried with you during exercise. Patients who use acarbose should carry oral glucose with them.
(4) Adjust the treatment plan according to the blood sugar monitoring situation
If there is obvious hypoglycemia after exercise, consult a doctor, reduce insulin consumption during meals in a planned way, or increase carbohydrate intake.
If it is exercise at night, pay attention to measuring the blood sugar at night after exercise. If it is low, the basic insulin dosage at night should be reduced under the guidance of doctors to reduce the risk of delayed hypoglycemia induced by exercise.
(5) Exercise Mode and Recommendation
1) Aerobic Exercise
Recommendation: fast walking, jogging, swimming, dancing, cycling, table tennis, etc.
At least 5 days a week, 30 minutes of aerobic exercise every day. If there is no basis for exercise, you can start with 5-10 minutes a day, 5 days a week, or break down 30 minutes a day into 3 times a day, each time for 10 minutes.
Patients who are underweight should not do excessive aerobic exercise for 30 minutes a day.
2) impedance motion
Recommendation: Weightlifting, aerobic exercises using elastic ropes, dumbbells, etc., or fitness equipment training in gymnasiums, etc.
Two times a week. Impedance exercise can strengthen bones and muscles and gain weight.
Underweight patients should gradually increase the frequency and intensity of impedance exercise according to their own conditions. Combined impedance exercise and aerobic exercise can help gain weight to the greatest extent.
3) Flexibility training
Recommendation: Stretching, Yoga, etc.
Flexibility training is carried out for 5-10 minutes before and after each aerobic exercise and impedance exercise, which can also be interspersed with daily activities. It can improve physical flexibility and coordination and reduce the probability of falls and sprains.
3. Quit smoking
In general, no matter whether you quit smoking or for a period of time after quitting smoking, you will gain weight. It is generally believed that after quitting smoking, your appetite and sense of smell will recover, your diet will be regular, and your metabolism will restore balance.