After another decade of WHO efforts, is the suicide rate of young girls even higher?

Suzanne Petroni, senior director of the International Center for Women’s Studies, used to believe that, According to numerous research data, The leading cause of female death is maternal mortality, In September 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) published a report entitled “World Adolescent Health: Second opportunity for the Second Decade, The conclusion was surprising. [I read the report, There are some subtext in it that is worth examining. Petroni said, [The leading cause of death among girls aged 15 to 19 is suicide, Not maternal death.] In April 2015, the report’s conclusion made headlines in all major media. Petroni repeatedly verified the conclusion and called friends working at WHO to finally confirm that the conclusion is true: the leading cause of death among 15-to 19-year-olds worldwide has changed from maternal death to [self-harm]. Has the suicide rate among teenage girls increased? There are many ways of self-mutilation, such as wrist cutting and overdose. Some ways of self-mutilation are not fatal, but when the word appears in the WHO report marked [mortality], it is equivalent to suicide. 1. Maternal mortality rate is declining. According to the WHO report, from 1990 to 2013, the number of women of all ages who died of complications of pregnancy and childbirth decreased by nearly 50%. Girls between the ages of 15 and 19, Mortality due to maternal complications dropped from 1.574/10,000 in 2000 to 0.972/10,000 in 2012. This change is not due to a sudden increase in the number of self-harm. From 2000 to 2012, The overall suicide rate among girls in this age group is also declining. Although the suicide rate among the above population has dropped from 15.85/10,000 in 2000 to 1173/10,000 in 2012, But not as fast as the number of deaths during pregnancy and childbirth. In fact, After 2000, For the first time, the number of suicide deaths among girls aged 15 to 19 has slightly exceeded the number of deaths during pregnancy and childbirth. However, people only noticed this trend after the WHO report came out in 2014. 2. The suicide rate among young girls in Southeast Asia is extremely high. The suicide rate in Southeast Asia is very high. With higher global average data. WHO designated survey areas include: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand and East Timor. In this region, the suicide rate of 15-to 19-year-olds is as high as 2792/10,000, more than twice that of other parts of the world and five times that of Europe and the Americas. [These figures are alarming,] Petroni said. [Southeast Asia is obviously the main reason for this figure.] Is the suicide rate accurate? Statistics on suicides are difficult to count. WHO investigators admit that Because of cultural taboos in some countries, People tried to cover up the fact that the cause of death was suicide. So there are loopholes in the suicide statistics in some countries. However, investigators still believe that these suicide data are representative. Among them, With the help of WHO, 60 countries have obtained reliable suicide data. Twenty-eight countries have established national policies to prevent suicide, For countries that have not even established official birth and death registration systems, WHO staff rely on national or regional surveys and other public data to infer a country’s overall suicide rate. In some countries and regions, Suicide remains a cultural taboo, Omissions still exist, However, the statistics are relatively reliable. Petroni pointed out: A study of Nepalese women shows that Suicide is the leading cause of death for women aged 15 to 34. The suicide rate among women in this age group increased from 22/10,000 in 1998 to 28/10,000 in 2009. Research shows that These vulnerable victims are often poor rural women who are socially isolated. In Nepal, wives are regarded as the property of their husbands and have been confined to a narrow circle centered on their husbands for many years. Suicide may be their only relief. How has contributed to a sustained decline in the global suicide rate? WHO research shows that, The overall suicide rate among adolescent girls and young women worldwide has decreased from the previous year: In 2000, it was 15.85/10,000, In 2012 it fell to 11,173 per million. Nevertheless, Suicide is still the leading cause of death for girls aged 15 to 19. The WHO report does not explain the decline in suicide rates. However, the efforts of some countries provide clues for investigators. Vikram Patel, professor of international mental health at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, pointed out: India has also done well in this regard, The problem of students committing suicide due to excessive pressure was noticed in time. In South India, Researchers observed that after the exam week, The suicide rate will increase among students who fail the examination. Later, After the introduction of the make-up examination measures, Suicide rates have declined (the above information was provided to WHO by a cooperating center in India). Some effective preventive measures that have been tested in practice, It does help reduce the global suicide rate. Ignoring the differences between countries, There are always general measures adapted to various social systems, such as restrictive measures (i.e. Reducing exposure to suicide methods) and increasing social resources to promote the mental health of young people. In high-income countries, about half of suicide deaths take the form of hanging, which is the most common method. The second is shooting suicide, which accounts for 18% of suicide deaths. Particularly in the United States, Shooting accounts for 46% of all suicides. In low-and middle-income countries, The way to commit suicide is not clear. WHO research shows that, About 30% of suicides worldwide are caused by pesticides, This approach is particularly common in most underdeveloped regions, There is little difference in gender and age. It is much easier to control pesticides than to solve the problems of young women’s involuntary marriage and loss of educational opportunities. It is indeed important to change society and solve the problem of fairness. However, this will be an arduous and protracted war. At the same time, it should be noted that a WHO report on suicide prevention measures mentioned that [self-mutilation] is the second leading cause of death for both boys and girls. This may suggest that the high suicide rate among young girls reflects the common problems encountered by teenagers of this age group.