Botulinum toxin, as the strongest known person in nature, is used by human beings for beauty treatment. It is also fashionable to mix into the circle of [micro-plastic] and inject it for the vast number of beauty lovers all the year round. Looking at the folded [facial paralysis faces] on the screen, aren’t you curious that they have all done what to themselves?
From past life to present life-how can botulinum toxin be used for plastic surgery?
The first person in history to connect botulinum toxin with human beings was German doctor Justinus Kerner in the 19th century. At that time, many patients developed poisoning symptoms after eating pickled food, which Kerner named [sausage toxin].
He even did experiments on himself and put forward the hypothesis of botulinum toxin poisoning mechanism. In the following half a century or so, scientists discovered botulinum toxin in [poisonous meat], extracted natural botulinum toxin, and realized the purification and extraction of crystalline botulinum toxin.
In 1949, Brugen’s team discovered and clarified the mechanism by which botulinum toxin blocks neuromuscular conduction. The following year, Vernon Brooks applied it to the treatment of muscle spasms.
After 30 years, The first batch of botulinum toxin type A was certified by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and was used to treat strabismus, spastic torticollis and other diseases caused by muscle dystonia, thus opening the prelude of botulinum toxin medicine. Several years after it was put on the market, the application of botulinum toxin continued to expand, and hemifacial spasm, blepharospasm and other diseases were included in the treatment scope.
The most exciting and historic discovery came from Jean Carruthers. In 1986, when he treated blepharospasm with botulinum toxin type A, he noticed that the wrinkles on the patient’s brow disappeared.
There is no shortage of beauty in the world, what is lacking is Carruthers who discovered beautiful eyes like this. He and his wife Alastair introduced this wrinkle removal effect of botulinum toxin into the beauty field, starting from brow lines, gradually expanding to crow’s feet, forehead lines and other treatments, and summed up quite valuable experience, which was first reported in 1992. 
Since then, the application field of botulinum toxin in cosmetic micro-plastic has been continuously expanded. Due to its muscle relaxation effect, botulinum toxin can also turn [Baozi face] into [awl face], so it has a famous nickname, [thin face needle].
Dance on the tip of a knife-how does botulinum toxin smooth wrinkles?
When botulinum toxin is secreted, there is only one idea: destroy the enemy.
It did not expect that the toxin it secretes, as the strongest known in nature, would be used as a biological and chemical weapon by human beings. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention also regarded it as a Class A potential bioterrorist.
In human cognition, botulinum toxin is one of the most neurotoxic proteins.
The human lethal dose of botulinum toxin is about 2,800-3,500 units, while the injection dose for plastic surgery is usually less than 100 units. 
However, nerve endings have the unique skill of handcuffing, but their proficiency is not high. It takes 3-6 months to open, and then the control of nerve endings on muscles will return to normal.
Today, botulinum toxin is mainly used in plastic surgery for wrinkle removal, contour shaping and facial deformity correction. The vast majority of beauty lovers who receive botulinum toxin beauty care aim at wrinkle removal.
It is generally believed that the formation of wrinkles is related to skin relaxation. After all, wrinkles are markers of the elderly. However, that is only the cause of [gravity wrinkles]. The [dynamic wrinkles] caused by repeated relaxation and contraction of facial expression muscles are the main components of wrinkles.
Fortunately, although botulinum toxin is ineffective for gravity wrinkles, it has significant curative effect on dynamic wrinkles, especially in forehead wrinkles, brow wrinkles, crow’s feet wrinkles, nasolabial groove wrinkles, neck transverse wrinkles, etc. 
Beauty also has a price-In additionIs wrinkle as simple as an injection?
Botulinum toxin injection is not as simple as ordinary injection.
As mentioned earlier, botulinum toxin is extremely neurotoxic, and a slight overdose or deviation from the injection position will cause serious consequences.
The choice of injection sites is also very exquisite. They should not only keep a proper distance from each other to avoid excessive muscle paralysis, but also ensure that all target nerve endings are included in the injection range. Only strictly trained plastic surgeons are qualified to operate. 
In general, 3-5 days after injection will appear expression unnatural, unconscious tears, fear of light, local swelling ecchymosis, feeling numbness, ptosis, eyebrow type changes and other side effects. These common side effects are temporary, 2-4 weeks later, will gradually fade away, also is the price that must be paid for pursuing a beautiful appearance.
The main reason why botulinum toxin has become popular in the beauty industry in recent years is that it has less trauma and takes effect quickly. A few needle holes and a few days can bring a rejuvenated face. However, botulinum toxin has a natural defect.
As a protein, botulinum toxin injected locally will eventually consume metabolism and neuromuscular conduction will resume again.
This time limit is about 3 ~ 8 months, in order to maintain the best beauty effect, it needs to be injected 2 ~ 3 times a year. Plus botulinum toxin at least 3,000 to 5,000 yuan, the annual cost needs at least 10,000 yuan. This is a cost-effective burden for ordinary families, and many people are therefore rejected.
Beauty is not cheap-what are the risks of cheap botulinum toxin injection?
In the end, people who cannot afford high prices and pursue beauty have become the targets of illegal vendors.
At present, the sales market of botulinum toxin-related products is mixed with fish and pearls. Illegally produced botulinum toxin is sold on the Internet and in some beauty salons for only a few hundred yuan, which is very popular. However, these cheap botulinum toxins have serious potential safety hazards.
Cheap botulinum toxin contains a lot of impurities, dosage is often not standard, injection technology is more insecure. In addition to easy to cause allergic reaction, over-dose injection leads to blepharoptosis, facial paralysis, loss of chewing function and other consequences, if injection is not professional or self-pricking needle, more likely to cause botulinum toxin poisoning, leading to respiratory muscle paralysis, cardiac arrest.
If you search for the news link of [Skinny Face Needle], you can easily see the real cases of the above consequences.
Therefore, the national drug regulatory authorities have very strict control over botulinum toxin. There are only two kinds of botulinum toxin approved for listing in China, namely [Hengli] and [Botox]. Empty bottles must be recycled and destroyed centrally. This is precisely to standardize the beauty market as much as possible and reduce the risks brought by botulinum toxin to consumers.
There are many ways to love beauty. Botox is a good option, but it is not the only one. Rational analysis, careful investment, don’t regret it.
Responsible Editor: Ding Ruoshui
This article is exclusively authorized to be used by Clove Garden and refuses any other form of reprinting.