Is it better for the elderly to be fatter?
We can all understand that [people of normal weight are healthier], But for those over 65 years of age, Suddenly, the opposite research result appeared: Older people may live longer if they are fatter. As early as 2007, some scholars proposed this phenomenon. In 2013, Katherine Flegal, a scientist at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, presented the results of his large sample study [whether overweight or mildly obese (based on BMI index), Fat people have a 6% lower all-cause mortality rate than normal weight people (all-cause mortality rate refers to the ratio of the total number of deaths caused by various causes in a certain period of time to the average population of the population in the same period). And the harm of obesity to the body decreases with age. The results of this study caused quite a stir in the medical field. At that time, there were four arguments. In the following years, scientists from various countries successively put forward their own research results, with both support and refutation. Faced with such disputes, doctors still hold a very cautious attitude towards whether the elderly need to lose weight. Do they really want to lose weight? Don’t worry, let’s take a look at the old age first. After all, what has changed in the human body. The characteristics of obesity in old age. After entering old age, Many retired elderly people gradually reduce their exercise, While the amount of food consumed has not decreased, Along with a drop in hormone levels, The basal metabolic rate decreased, Reduced musculoskeletal atrophy of limbs. 1. Muscle reduction This physical change has actually occurred quietly since the age of 40 or 50. The immediate consequence is that the body’s response to insulin is insufficient. Can not give full play to the role of insulin in reducing blood sugar, That is, insulin resistance. This leads to a further decrease in the body’s basal metabolic rate. Produces various metabolic syndromes, fat increase and fat redistribution. Less muscle, It is easy to make the elderly feel tired and weak. The consequence of insulin resistance is a series of chronic diseases: Diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, heart disease, hypertension. 2. The obesity of the elderly with high fat proportion is characterized by muscular obesity. Showing a high weight of fat, Low muscle weight, Fat is more concentrated in viscera, muscles and liver. 3. Joint Negative Weight Obese elderly people suffer from joint negative weight. It is easy to degenerate hip and knee joints, pain, and affect mobility. 4. The situation of elderly obese women with high estrogen level will be more complicated. Because adipose tissue can produce estrogen, Obese elderly menopausal women, Although they suffer from various chronic metabolic syndromes, However, high estrogen levels can resist osteoporosis. Advantages and Disadvantages of Weight Loss for the Elderly. Benefits: Can reduce the incidence of heart disease, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, Reduce medication, improve mobility, These have been fully confirmed in studies of all ages. Risk: Since weight loss usually reduces both fat and muscle, The elderly will lose weight on the basis of the original muscle-less obesity, Further causing additional muscle loss, Myasthenia, weakness, falls, Loss of bone minerals, The risk of fracture is even higher. So far, There is no final conclusion on the relationship between weight loss and mortality of all causes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer incidence and cognitive function in the elderly. To balance the advantages and disadvantages of weight loss, It is a problem that the elderly need to consider to lose weight. The elderly should pay more attention to waist circumference because the elderly generally have age-related height reduction. If body mass index (BMI) = weight (kg)/height (m 2) is used to measure obesity, Will overestimate body fat, However, waist circumference has a better correlation with the distribution of overall fat and intra-abdominal fat in the elderly. Therefore, it is more suitable to be used as a measurement index for senile muscular obesity. The correct measurement method of waist circumference: Standing position, at the end of exhalation, measure the length of one circumference around the waist horizontally through the belly button with a tape measure. At present, medical research is finding out the definition value of obese waist circumference in the elderly, trying to accurately describe the body fat distribution characteristics of this population. The reference value of muscular oligospermia obesity in the Dutch > 70 years old is male > 100 cm; Female > 99 cm. The weight loss recommendations for the elderly suggest suffering from cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, The obese elderly with BMI > 30 kg/m ^ 2, It is necessary to lose weight purposefully. Research on this population found that The benefits of losing weight obviously outweigh the disadvantages. Weight Loss Goals: Increase muscle content, Raise basal metabolic rate, Reduce body fat rate, Improve the overall activity ability and quality of life. According to the energy consumption of increasing 500 ~ 1,000 calories per day, Usually can reduce 1 ~ 2 kg of body weight every month, moderately reduce 10% ~ 20% of the original body weight within one year, or reduce waist circumference by 10 ~ 15 cm, which is equivalent to visceral fat reduction significantly greater than muscle loss, and can obviously improve the overall health status. The old man used to feel gasping when walking with a vegetable basket, and after losing weight, he could easily carry a 3-4 kg vegetable basket on foot.