Who can donate blood?
In order to ensure the health of blood donors, the < < Blood Donor Health Examination Standard > > stipulates that blood donors must undergo the following physical examinations:
- Check the age: the suitable age for blood donation is 18 ~ 55 years old.
- Weight: not less than 50kg for men and 45kg for women.
- Blood pressure: Systolic blood pressure 90 ~ 140 mmHg; Diastolic blood pressure was 60 ~ 90 mmHg and pulse pressure difference was more than 30 mmHg.
- Pulse: 60 ~ 100 times per minute, and 50 ~ 100 times per minute for athletes with high endurance.
- Body temperature is normal.
- Normal development, medium nutrition or above.
- There was no yellow stain on the skin, no wound infection, no large area skin disease, and no obvious swelling of superficial lymph nodes.
- There are no serious diseases in the facial features, no yellow staining in the sclera, and no swelling of the thyroid gland.
- There is no severe disability in limbs, no redness and swelling of joints and dysfunction.
- Chest: Heart and lungs are normal.
- Abdomen: normal, no lump, no tenderness, liver and spleen are not swollen.
Don’t be nervous, don’t take medicine, don’t drink alcohol, sleep more and eat less fat.
How to protect needle eyes after blood donation?
- After blood donation, the puncture hole should be covered with sterilized cotton balls, fixed with adhesive tape, and the needle eye should be pressed along the vein with 3 fingers for 5 minutes.
- Check whether there is bleeding or bleeding at the puncture hole. If there is bleeding, raise the arm and continue to compress the part.
- In order to protect the puncture hole from infection, do not remove the dressing on the puncture hole for at least 4 hours.
- The eye of the needle will not touch water for 1-2 days.
The injured how cooperated with the doctor?
Before blood transfusion, the doctor should decide which blood component or blood product to transfuse and the amount of blood transfusion according to the patient’s condition. The injured person should tell the doctor his medical history truthfully. If you have had any blood transfusion before, There was a reaction from what, I am what blood type, Rh negative or positive. Women with a history of childbirth, If the child develops severe jaundice and anemia within one week of birth (possibly due to maternal-fetal immunity, The mother’s body produces blood group antibodies against the child’s red blood cells, which can make the baby suffer from neonatal hemolytic disease). The mother should also check the antibodies other than ABO blood group before blood transfusion to ensure the safety of the mother during blood transfusion. It is recommended to transfuse blood component or blood products scientifically, reasonably, safely and effectively. Is blood transfusion between relatives safe? Some people think that it is safest for patients to transfuse blood from relatives. In fact, this is not the case. To some extent, The risk of graft versus host disease (GVHD) after blood transfusion between relatives (such as parents and children) is much higher than that of blood transfusion between non-relatives. Graft versus host disease is easy to occur during blood transfusion or bone marrow (or hematopoietic stem cells). It is an exotic, immunologically active cell that produces immune attacks on the organs and systems of the recipient. Can cause serious damage to the body, Many organ systems such as skin, stomach and intestines, liver and kidney can be invaded. The death rate is relatively high. It is very important to prevent the occurrence of this disease. Blood transfusion should not transfuse new blood as much as possible. All components of new blood have strong antigenicity. It is easy to cause blood transfusion reaction. There are a large number of living lymphocytes, These living lymphocytes increase the risk of graft versus host disease in recipients. There are some infectious diseases, Like syphilis, Treponema pallidum can survive for 3 days at 4 ℃ in vitro, Therefore, the blood within 3 days still has the possibility of contagious syphilis, and the blood over 3 days is safe instead. If the purpose of blood transfusion is to supplement platelets and granulocytes, the blood within 12 hours is fresh, but the platelets and granulocytes contained are impure and not thick, and cannot reach the therapeutic effect. Therefore, transfusion of new blood does great harm and small advantages, and does not advocate transfusion. Transfusion of blood component has what benefits? The disease needs to be selected, Lack of what to lose to what, Improve the therapeutic effect. In this case, Burns are the most common, They usually need plasma transfusion, etc. Reduce adverse reactions of blood transfusion, Improve the safety of blood transfusion. Because inputting unwanted blood components is not only a waste, But also can cause adverse reactions of blood transfusion. It is convenient to store, Easy to use. Different blood components can be stored in different ways. For a long time, such as fresh frozen plasma, cold precipitate can be stored for 1 year. Short-term platelets such as platelets can be stored for 3-5 days under special techniques and can be used at any time. One blood is used for multiple purposes, Save blood. Blood comes from the selfless contribution of healthy people. Is a valuable resource, Dividing a bag of blood into various components can be used for many purposes. Treat multiple patients. For example, a city donates 350,000 units of blood every year, and the made blood component has 700,000-1 million units. Reduce blood transfusion infectious diseases. Because some pathogenic factors in blood are mostly hidden in white blood cells, cryoprecipitate and coagulation factors and other products, most blood transfusion patients do not need these components. Responsible Editor: Cat Capricorn