Why do you have to do so many examinations before the operation?

Many patients who are hospitalized in surgery for surgery always have doubts about a pile of blood drawn and various examinations before surgery: [I just came to do a minor operation. Is it useful for what to do these examinations? Let’s take a simple cholecystectomy as an example, Tell everyone that what is available for preoperative examination, and what is used for checking these. Physical examination, understanding medical history, every patient has to go through this process before surgery. On the first day of hospitalization, After arriving at the ward, First of all, I have to report to the nurse’s station. After registering the information, The nurse will take your blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, Take your weight and body temperature. Then the patient goes to the hospital bed to rest. Within 2 hours, a bed doctor will come to inquire about the patient’s symptoms, whether there are any basic diseases, previous physical conditions, And give the patient a physical examination. Don’t underestimate these procedures, By understanding the medical history, Doctors can have a more intuitive impression of the patient’s condition, Mastering information that may be common to patients but important to doctors. Therefore, patients need to know everything about doctors. All kinds of tests and examinations 1. Laboratory items need to be perfected before surgery. The laboratory items and examination purposes are as follows: blood routine: to judge whether patients have anemia, infection, blood system diseases, etc. Urine routine: whether there is urinary tract infection or kidney disease; Routine stool: whether there are parasites or hematochezia invisible to the naked eye; Blood biochemistry: understand liver and kidney function and blood sugar and lipid levels; Coagulation: There will be trauma in surgery. If the hemostatic function of the body is not good, surgery cannot be performed. Four serum items: whether there is infection of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, AIDS and syphilis. If there is infection, medical staff and equipment in the operating room need to be prepared in advance. Blood type and cross-matching: When blood transfusion may be required for surgery, blood type should be tested and cross-matching should be carried out to prepare in advance. 2. First of all, each patient must undergo the following two kinds of tests: electrocardiogram: it can reflect heart problems that some patients do not know, and some problems need treatment before surgery; Chest radiograph: It is preliminarily determined that there is no obvious abnormality in the lungs. If the patient is older, It is also necessary to check echocardiography and lung function to further understand the function of the patient’s heart and lungs. Only when there is no obvious abnormality in the heart and lung function can the operation be performed. These are routine preoperative examinations that the patient does not know much about and the doctor does not have time to explain in detail. Are these examinations excessive medical treatment? The starting point for making such routine examinations is to fully understand the patient’s situation, reduce the risk of surgery, and at the same time give consideration to the principle of low cost. For these examinations, patients often have two questions: the first is: I will come in and have a gallbladder cut, the body is very good, why do you check so much? Is it excessive medical treatment? In the face of this doubt, after reading the above explanation of various examinations, I believe you have realized the necessity of these examinations: without any one of them, patients may be put at greater risk during surgery. The second is that these examinations are not enough! One thousand dollars is a fool. Can we check it more comprehensively? These are routine preoperative examinations, The aim is to [reduce the risk of surgery]. If these tests indicate abnormalities, We will choose more professional examination methods according to the disease. Admittedly, Doing more and more advanced preoperative examinations can improve the detection rate of diseases. But this means more expenses. At the same time, The proportion of diseases screened out by such tests is not high, It seems a bit too much. For example, there are such cases in reality. A person was hospitalized for cholecystolithiasis, and the existing preoperative routine examination did not find lung cancer with relatively small lungs. After cholecystectomy, the patient was discharged smoothly. Six months later, lung cancer developed to advanced stage. Is it necessary for the hospital to include CT in the preoperative routine examination? Indeed, in the detection of early lung cancer, the detection rate of chest radiographs with tens of dollars is not as high as that of CT with hundreds or thousands of dollars. But in order not to miss diagnosis, should hospitals include plain chest CT scan in routine preoperative examination? I don’t think so, because it is possible that only one such missed diagnosis will occur in 1,000 patients with cholecystolithiasis. It is obviously unreasonable to perform CT examination on all 999 other patients just because of one person. Now, do you know that what is used for pre-operation examination?