Physical Examination of Middle-aged and Elderly People [Instructions]

With the growth of age, the function and structure of all organs of the whole body will undergo degenerative changes, many diseases will [take advantage of the situation], and the harm of some specific diseases will also increase.

Therefore, the middle-aged and the elderly, especially those over 50 years old, who have a history of family diseases or other high-risk factors, should undergo regular physical examination. When necessary, targeted examinations should be carried out to find and control common and frequently-occurring diseases as soon as possible and keep healthy.

Frequency of routine health check-ups

How often should I go to the hospital for a routine health examination?

This problem varies from person to person according to age, sex, occupation, health status and family history. Generally speaking:

    Healthy young people: Routine physical examination is usually carried out every 1 ~ 2 years. But the physique is poor, Especially those with family history of hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes, mental illness and tumor, It is suggested to check once a year. Middle-aged and elderly people: due to the decline of various functions, the body has entered [eventful autumn], and the interval time for examination should be shortened to about half a year. Especially for the elderly over 60 years old, the interval time should be about 3-4 months. Personnel who are in close contact with toxic and harmful substances for work types should also be regularly checked to find occupational diseases at an early stage.

Physical examination items

Many middle-aged and elderly people often do not know what to choose when faced with various physical examination items.

Fortunately, at present, the physical examination centers of various hospitals will formulate different [physical examination packages] for different groups of people, and can choose the [packages] suitable for themselves according to their own conditions and doctors’ professional suggestions.

Routine health check-up package:

    General physical examination: specialized examination in internal medicine, surgery, gynecology, otolaryngology, ophthalmology and liver diseases; Functional examination: ECG, chest radiograph, B-ultrasound (including liver, gallbladder, spleen, kidney and reproductive system) and other imaging examinations, cardiac color Doppler ultrasound examination can be appropriately increased according to their own conditions; Biochemical tests: blood, urine, stool routine and blood sugar, blood lipid, liver and kidney function, thyroid function and hepatitis B five laboratory tests.

(Click on the link to teach you to read the three routine checklists)

In addition, people with depression, anxiety and irritability can also have a psychological counseling.

Middle-aged and elderly people should know [extra meals] in physical examination:

It is recommended that the middle-aged and elderly people, especially those over 50 years old, should have targeted physical examination [extra meals] in addition to routine physical examination.

Cardiac examination

For the temporary asymptomatic coronary heart disease, early myocardial infarction and other early cardiovascular diseases, it is difficult to be found through conventional electrocardiogram, resulting in the middle-aged and elderly people often ignore this aspect of the problem.

Suggestion: People with arrhythmia, chest tightness, shortness of breath and other symptoms should go to the hospital for cardiac examination.

Brain examination

The onset age of cerebral infarction and cerebral hemorrhage is younger, but many people do not choose brain CT or magnetic resonance in routine physical examination.

Suggestion: People who often feel dizzy, headache, dim eyesight or feel weak on one side of their limbs can have brain CT or magnetic resonance examination when conditions permit to help them check diseases at an early stage.

(Before doing MRI, perhaps you should click on the link to learn about 9 things you should know when doing MRI.)

Cancer screening

Some data show that the mortality rate of cancer in the 35-50 age group has already ranked first among all kinds of diseases in this age group.

Suggestion: For people over 50 years old, it is best to have cancer screening once a year. In recent years, the occurrence of cancer tends to be younger. It is suggested that young people with family history or related risk factors should also pay attention to such tests.

Gastrointestinal endoscopy

Gastrointestinal endoscopy can find some precancerous lesions, such as gastric ulcer, colorectal polyp, etc.

Suggestion: The first gastroscopy and colonoscopy can be started at the age of 35 ~ 40. If there is no abnormality, it can be done once every 3 ~ 5 years. If conditions permit, the examination interval can be shorter, especially for people with family genetic history of gastrointestinal tumors, which should be paid more attention.

Bone mineral density examination

Calcium in bone generally starts to lose from the age of over 30, and the initial symptoms of osteoporosis are not obvious.

Suggestion: After 40 years old, if there is persistent pain in waist, pelvis, back, knee joint and other parts, bone mineral density should be checked to prevent osteoporosis in advance.

Postprandial blood glucose examination

Some people think that if the fasting blood glucose level is normal, everything will be all right. However, if the blood glucose level is higher than normal 2 hours after the meal, even if it does not meet the diagnostic criteria for diabetes, it is also impaired glucose tolerance, and the alarm bell has sounded for macroangiopathy.

Suggestion: People over 40 years old, with family history of diabetes, obesity and hypertension should have postprandial blood sugar tests in addition to fasting blood sugar.

Breast examination

Breast self-examination and breast cancer screening are likely to help female friends find patients as soon as possible and improve the quality of prognosis.

Suggestion: Women over 40 years old should have mammography checked once a year. For women with a family history of breast cancer, it is more recommended to have mammography checked once a year.

Prostate examination

In middle age, prostate gland begins to decline and connective tissue hyperplasia requires attention.

Suggestion: Prostate ultrasound examination should be added during physical examination so as to find abnormalities as early as possible.

Fundus examination

Many diseases can be found in time through fundus examination. For example, if the retinal artery is sclerotic, the degree of systemic arteriosclerosis and even cerebral arteriosclerosis can be seen.

Suggestion: For those over 45 years old, fundus should be examined once a year. This examination is even more necessary for those who have recently suffered from blurred vision and headache.

Oral examination

As the saying goes, “Toothache is not a disease, it really hurts.” If bleeding, halitosis, loose teeth, sensitivity and soreness after eating cold or overheated food when brushing teeth, etc., all indicate that periodontal disease may occur.

Suggestion: When you have the above symptoms, you should find an stomatologist for examination and treatment. It is better to have regular oral examination every six months.

Precautions for Physical Examination of Middle-aged and Elderly

1. Pay attention to the best time for blood collection and fasting

The best time for blood collection and testing is between 7: 30 and 8: 30 in the morning. Blood collection should be on an empty stomach. Patients should fast and forbid water for 12-14 hours. After completing the required fasting examination, other examinations can be carried out after eating and taking medicine according to daily habits.

2. Pay attention not to stop taking drugs rashly before physical examination.

Blood collection requires fasting, but medication for patients with chronic diseases should be treated differently. For example, hypertension patients should also take medicine normally for physical examination, and explain the medication to doctors at the same time. For patients with diabetes or other chronic diseases, they should also eat and take medicine in time after blood collection.

3. Be careful not to abandon inspection items at will.

Some examination items set in the physical examination form, such as anal finger examination, are especially important for the discovery of rectal tumor in patients over 40 years old. Some subjects give up the examination automatically because they are afraid of trouble or shy. If the subjects really have pathological changes, they naturally lose the best time for treatment, and the consequences are self-evident.

4. Pay attention to the statement of important medical history

Medical history is an important reference basis for doctors to judge the health status of the examinees, so don’t deliberately hide it and make doctors miss or misdiagnose it. The statement of medical history should strive to be objective and accurate, and important diseases should not be omitted.

5. Pay attention to the conclusion of physical examination,

The conclusion of physical examination is the health prescription prescribed by doctors according to the physical examination results of various subjects through comprehensive analysis, which has important guiding significance for correcting bad living habits and preventing and treating diseases. Therefore, we should carefully read and earnestly implement it so as to embody the significance of physical examination.

6. Establishment of a medical examination manual

If conditions permit, it is best to have a regular doctor preside over the examination every time so as to comprehensively and systematically grasp the health status of the subject and give health care guidance to the subject. Participants should prepare a health examination manual (or prepared by the hospital) and fill in it carefully every time.

Prevention requires foreknowledge, foreknowledge requires physical examination. Only through regular physical examination can one understand one’s physical condition. If problems are found, one can intervene in time. Especially for middle-aged and elderly friends, pay attention to physical examination and grasp one’s health.

Responsible Editor: Ni Jiahua