Acute myocardial infarction is the main cause of sudden death, According to statistics, about 12 million people in the United States suffer from coronary heart disease every year, and more than 40% of them will die as a result. What is more frightening is that about a quarter of patients with acute myocardial infarction cannot save their lives even if they receive treatment, and some have died even before they reach the hospital. It is very important to understand the causes of myocardial infarction and take active preventive measures.
Some of the causes of myocardial infarction are beyond our control, such as age growth and heredity, but more can be controlled. By changing lifestyle and controlling these risk factors, the risk of heart disease can be reduced.
- Smoking, lack of physical exercise, obesity (over 20% of ideal weight), poor control of blood sugar, blood pressure and blood lipid, high pressure and poor mood
To reduce risks, we must start with the above controllable factors.
Smoking can double the risk of myocardial infarction. Quitting smoking is the most important and effective measure to prevent myocardial infarction.
- If you smoke, quit smoking as soon as possible. If you do not smoke, please try to avoid secondhand smoke.
Control blood lipid
With the increase of cholesterol level in the body, the risk of heart attack also increases.
There are several main indicators of blood lipid that need attention:
- Total cholesterol: The cholesterol level of adults should be controlled below 200 mg/dL. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol: The higher this cholesterol, the greater the possibility of myocardial infarction. Healthy adults should control this index to 130 mg/dL;. High density lipoprotein cholesterol: This cholesterol can help delay arteriosclerosis and is beneficial to vascular health. It is best to be higher than 40 mg/dL in men and 50 mg/dL in women.
For patients with coronary heart disease, hypertension and diabetes, the control level of blood lipid needs to be calculated according to different situations of each person, and most patients need to take modulation drugs for a long time to control.
In addition, healthy eating habits and moderate exercise are of great help to maintain a healthy blood lipid level.
Control of hypertension
Blood pressure is also an important factor affecting vascular health.
Diet and exercise can effectively reduce the risk of hypertension and help hypertension patients control blood pressure.
However, most hypertension patients need to be controlled by drug therapy.
At present, commonly used antihypertensive drugs can not only control blood pressure, but also protect the heart and prevent heart changes, which can effectively improve the long-term quality of life of hypertension patients.
Control diabetes mellitus
Excessive blood sugar can make blood vessels sclerotic and brittle, and is more prone to rupture and hardened plaques. Patients with diabetes must actively control blood sugar.
Through healthy diet, regular exercise, keeping a healthy weight and taking medicine on time, etc., it is helpful to control blood sugar level and keep healthy.
Even slight exercise can reduce the risk of heart disease.
For most people, 30 minutes of moderate intensity exercise should be guaranteed every day. After forming exercise habits, the intensity of exercise can be gradually increased.
It is recommended to choose jogging, swimming, rope skipping and other aerobic exercises that are not high in intensity and can drive multiple muscles, which are more beneficial to health. People who have never exercised habits can start exercising from the slightly lower intensity of brisk walking.
Patients whose blood pressure is not well controlled need to consult a doctor to find the right exercise intensity. Diabetes patients should be careful of hypoglycemia.
According to the 2016 European Guidelines for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention, diets conducive to cardiovascular health mainly include the following points:
- Try to use foods containing polyunsaturated fatty acids to satisfy fat intake, such as vegetable oil, nuts, etc. Try to avoid trans fatty acids and reduce the intake of artificial fats such as fried foods and vegetable butter. Salt intake is less than 5 g per day. In view of the current diet situation of Chinese residents, the standard can be relaxed to 6 g; Intake more dietary fiber. Foods containing more dietary fiber include coarse grains, beans, mushrooms, etc. Eat not less than 200 g of fruit every day, equivalent to the size of a fist; Vegetables are not less than 200 g, which is equivalent to holding a large handful of vegetables in your hand. Eat fish 1 ~ 2 times a week; 30 g of salt-free nuts per day is equivalent to one handful with one hand. Limit alcohol consumption to no more than 1 serving per day; Try to avoid sugary drinks, fruit juice, etc.
Maintain a healthy weight
Overweight will increase the heart burden and the risk of heart diseases. Obesity is also closely related to hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, etc.
Everyone should control or lose weight through healthy diet and exercise to reduce the risk of heart disease.
Emotional excitement and excessive psychological pressure will increase hypertension in an instant, leading to heart attack. Long-term mental stress affects the regulation of blood pressure by nerve and endocrine.
You can learn some methods to control emotions and relieve stress, cultivate several interests and hobbies for relaxation, relieve bad emotions in time, and minimize the impact of mental stress on physical health.