Why do cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases occur frequently in autumn and winter? How do we deal with it?

Autumn and winter are the high incidence periods of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The incidence and mortality rates of hypertension, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, arrhythmia and stroke often increase greatly at this stage.

Why do cardiovascular and cerebrovascular accidents occur frequently in autumn and winter? How should we deal with it?

Reason 1: Low Temperature

Cold often leads to faster heartbeat and vasoconstriction, thus increasing blood pressure and heart load, increasing the probability of angina pectoris and myocardial infarction.

Some studies have shown that for every 10 ℃ drop in temperature, the risk of heart disease increases by 7%.

Coping strategies

Pay attention to keeping warm, especially for the middle-aged and the elderly, autumn clothes and trousers, sweaters and trousers, which should be worn. When the temperature is very low or cold rain and snow days, to ensure the appropriate indoor temperature, remember to keep warm when going out.

Reason 2: Blood pressure fluctuates greatly,

Changes in hormone levels in winter and changes in indoor and outdoor temperatures are easy to cause blood pressure fluctuations, which is more obvious in the elderly.

Fluctuation of blood pressure will accelerate the formation and development of arteriosclerosis, which is easy to cause angina pectoris or cerebrovascular problems.

Coping strategies

Patients with hypertension should adhere to the doctor’s advice and do not stop taking drugs or change the dosage without authorization.

Sometimes, the pressure control effect of the same dose of antihypertensive drugs as in summer may not be ideal in autumn and winter, so attention should be paid to monitoring blood pressure, seeing a doctor in time in case of blood pressure rise or discomfort such as dizziness, headache and chest tightness, and consulting a doctor whether the dosage of drugs needs to be adjusted.

With the change of indoor and outdoor temperature, wear and take off clothes, don’t make the body feel cold and hot. Also, avoid mood swings.

Reason 3: Blood Cholesterol Elevates

Hypercholesterolemia is closely related to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.

In autumn and winter, people tend to eat high-calorie foods more easily. If the blood cholesterol level and blood triglyceride level are not well controlled, the risk of heart disease or stroke will be increased.

Coping strategies

Just because you wear too many clothes in the cold weather and can’t see your figure, you can’t be unscrupulous [fattening up in autumn].

Maintain a healthy lifestyle, eat a balanced diet, quit smoking and limit alcohol consumption, and exercise moderately.

Reason 4: Vitamin D Declines

Studies have shown that vitamin D levels in the body will decrease in autumn and winter.

Many clinical studies have proved that vitamin D will affect the contractile function of myocardium, and vitamin D deficiency will increase the incidence of cardiovascular diseases.

Coping strategies

Sufficient sunlight is conducive to the absorption of vitamin D. When the weather is suitable, go out for a walk more. In addition, you can also choose foods with high vitamin D content in your daily diet, such as marine fish.

Reason 5: Reduced Physical Activity

It is cold and many people stay at home and do not want to go out for activities. Coupled with low temperature, vasoconstriction and slow blood flow, these all increase the risk of deep vein thrombosis of lower limbs.

Coping strategies

Moderate exercise. Moderate means to move, but not to the point where the heart and lungs cannot bear it. Don’t always nest in the sofa and do some housework, which is also a lightweight activity.

Reason 6: Air Pollution

Very not easy to persuade myself to go out for exercise, only to find that the outdoor smog is serious.

Pollutants such as PM 2.5 in the air can accelerate heart rate, raise hypertension, stimulate vascular inflammatory reaction, and cause blood to be in a hypercoagulable state, thus causing heart disease.

PM 2.5 significantly increased the risk of cardiovascular death and myocardial infarction. PM 10 and PM 2.5 levels increased significantly in autumn and winter, and PM 2.5 levels in Beijing increased by nearly 57% in winter.

In addition, the air pressure in smoggy days is low, and the oxygen concentration in the air is also low. Patients with poor cardiopulmonary function such as hypertension, coronary heart disease and heart failure are more likely to suffer from hypoxia when engaging in outdoor activities.

Coping strategies

When the air pollution is serious, it is better to reduce outdoor activities and stay indoors. If you have to go out, you should wear an anti-haze mask.

Reason 7: Respiratory tract infection is easy to occur,

In autumn and winter, the incidence of respiratory tract infection increases. After infection, the oxygen exchange capacity of lung tissue decreases and the heart burden increases, which is easy to induce acute myocardial infarction, sudden death, etc., and heart failure is also more likely to occur.

Coping strategies

Prevent respiratory tract infection and inject influenza vaccine when necessary.

Watching the temperature drop day by day, prepare clothes for autumn and winter, take out bedding for autumn and winter, and look at the articles published by Dr. Clove in autumn and winter. Enjoy fallen leaves and snow, and spend the autumn and winter of 2019 healthily and happily.